Industrial Revolution and Free Market After the civil war in the 1860’s, America’s population grew tremendously and almost tripled. In the latter years of the nineteenth century, the United States went through an industrial revolution that is known as the Second Industrial Revolution, the first being in Britain in the eighteenth century. Market: the rise and fall of import substitution - Poverty brokers: the IMF and World Bank - Lost decade: Latin America 1982-1991 - Silent revolution: Latin America 1991-2003 - Export or die: export-led growth and regional trade - Silences of the revolution: the human and environmental costs of adjustment - For and against. Download Free Digital Books in PDF, EPUB and MOBI Formats. We have all books You Are Looking For. Thousands of Free Digital Books on PDFBooksPlanet.org. Download Free PDF. Economic Development, 11th Edition (The Pearson Series in Economics) by Michael P. Todaro, Stephen C. Download Full PDF Package. A short summary of this paper. 35 Full PDFs related to this paper. Dec 07, 2021 The Man Who Solved the Market: How Jim Simons Launched the Quant Revolution. Unlimited all-in-one ebooks in one place. Free trial account for registered user.
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The Industrial Revolution took place over more thana century, as production of goods moved from homebusinesses, where products were generally craftedby hand, to machine-aided production in factories.This revolution, which involved major changes intransportation, manufacturing, and communications,transformed the daily lives of Americans as much as—and arguably more than—any single event in U.S. history.
An early landmark moment in the Industrial Revolutioncame near the end of the eighteenth century,when Samuel Slater brought new manufacturingtechnologies from Britain to the United Statesand founded the first U.S. cotton mill in Beverly,Massachusetts. Slater’s Mill in Pawtucket, RhodeIsland, like many of the mills and factories thatsprang up in the next few decades, was poweredby water, which confined industrial development tothe northeast at first. The concentration of industryin the Northeast also facilitated the development oftransportation systems such as railroads and canals,which encouraged commerce and trade.
The technological innovation that would come to markthe United States in the nineteenth century beganto show itself with Robert Fulton’s establishment ofsteamboat service on the Hudson River, Samuel F. B.Morse’s invention of the telegraph, and Elias Howe’sinvention of the sewing machine, all before the CivilWar. Following the Civil War, industrialization in theUnited States increased at a breakneck pace. Thisperiod, encompassing most of the second half ofthe nineteenth century, has been called the SecondIndustrial Revolution or the American IndustrialRevolution. Over the first half of the century, thecountry expanded greatly, and the new territorywas rich in natural resources. Completing the firsttranscontinental railroad in 1869 was a majormilestone, making it easier to transport people,raw materials, and products. The United Statesalso had vast human resources: between 1860and 1900, fourteen million immigrants came to thecountry, providing workers for an array of industries.
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The American industrialists overseeing this expansionwere ready to take risks to make their businessessuccessful. Andrew Carnegie established the first steelmills in the U.S. to use the British “Bessemer process”for mass producing steel, becoming a titan of the steelindustry in the process. He acquired business interestsin the mines that produced the raw material for steel, the mills and ovens that created the final product andthe railroads and shipping lines that transported thegoods, thus controlling every aspect f the steelmakingprocess.
Other industrialists, including John D. Rockefeller, mergedthe operations of many large companies to form a trust. Rockefeller’sStandard Oil Trust came to monopolize 90% of the industry,severely limiting competition. These monopolies were often accusedof intimidating smaller businesses and competitors inorder to maintain high prices and profits. Economicinfluence gave these industrial magnates significantpolitical clout as well. The U.S. government adoptedpolicies that supported industrial development suchas providing land for the construction of railroads andmaintaining high tariffs to protect American industryfrom foreign competition.
American inventors like Alexander Graham Belland Thomas Alva Edison created a long list ofnew technologies that improved communication,transportation, and industrial production. Edison madeimprovements to existing technologies, includingthe telegraph while also creating revolutionary newtechnologies such as the light bulb, the phonograph,the kinetograph, and the electric dynamo. Bell,meanwhile, explored new speaking and hearingtechnologies, and became known as the inventor ofthe telephone.
For millions of working Americans, the industrialrevolution changed the very nature of their daily work.Previously, they might have worked for themselvesat home, in a small shop, or outdoors, crafting rawmaterials into products, or growing a crop from seedto table. When they took factory jobs, they wereworking for a large company. The repetitive work ofteninvolved only one small step in the manufacturingprocess, so the worker did not see or appreciate whatwas being made; the work was often dangerous andperformed in unsanitary conditions. Some womenentered the work force, as did many children. Childlabor became a major issue. Dangerous workingconditions, long hours, and concern over wages andchild labor contributed to the growth of labor unions.In the decades after the Civil War, workers organizedstrikes and work stoppages that helped to publicizetheir problems. One especially significant laborupheaval was the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. Wagecuts in the railroad industry led to the strike, whichbegan in West Virginia and spread to three additionalstates over a period of 45 days before being violentlyended by a combination of vigilantes, NationalGuardsmen, and federal troops. Similar episodesoccurred more frequently in the following decades asworkers organized and asserted themselves againstperceived injustices.
The new jobs for the working class were in the cities.Thus, the Industrial Revolution began the transitionof the United States from a rural to an urbansociety. Young people raised on farms saw greateropportunities in the cities and moved there, as didmillions of immigrants from Europe. Providing housingfor all the new residents of cities was a problem,and many workers found themselves living in urbanslums; open sewers ran alongside the streets, andthe water supply was often tainted, causing disease.These deplorable urban conditions gave rise to theProgressive Movement in the early twentieth century;the result would be many new laws to protect andsupport people, eventually changing the relationshipbetween government and the people.
The Industrial Revolution is a complex set of economic, technological, and social changes that occurred overa substantial period of time. Teachers should consider the documents in this collection as tools for stimulatingstudent thinking about aspects of the Industrial Revolution.
Suggestions for Teachers
- After providing a definition of the Industrial Revolution and explaining the timespan across which it took place, teachers might supply small groups of studentswith a set of the documents in this primary source set. Students can categorizethe documents by whether they provide information about what happened, whyit happened, or its effects. Some documents may fit into more than one category.When small groups have completed their work, the teacher can facilitate creatinga class list of events of the Industrial Revolution, causes (or supporting factors),and effects. Students may search the Library’s online collections to findadditional evidence to support the causes and effects on the class chart.
- Using the documents in this primary source set, students can create a timeline of important events in theIndustrial Revolution. The last document in the set is dated 1919. Was the Industrial Revolution over by1919? Challenge students to find evidence in the Library of Congress digital collections to support theiranswer (there are documents that suggest industrialization in the South was still taking place into the1930s).
- Understanding a historical event as it was experienced by those who lived through it is an importantskill of historical thinking—and one that can be difficult to develop. Teachers may challenge students tostudy documents in the collection to identify varied perspectives on the changes brought by the IndustrialRevolution, as experienced by people of the day. Would students classify the responses as mainly positive,mainly negative, or about equally divided? How did people respond to what they perceived as negativeeffects of the Industrial Revolution?
- In 1893, Chicago hosted the World’s Columbian Exposition, which highlighted achievements of the UnitedStates and other nations in a variety of fields, including manufacturing and technology. An entire buildingwas devoted to electricity. Using the primary source set as a starting point, ask students to design an exhibitabout the development of American industry for the World’s Columbian Exposition.