Making Sense Of Change Management (Summary) PDF Free Download

Strategy Execution and Change Management Consultants - Kotter. Request PDF On Feb 7, 2018, Mike Green published Making Sense of Change Management Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate.

ITIL Foundation: 4th edition book PDF free download

ITIL v4 Foundation PDF

Together with value streams and practices that have replaced “processes,” the seven guiding principles are the foundation of ITIL 4. These principles can be used by IT companies regardless of their strategy, management approach, and type of service provided. As the authors of the library emphasize, each of the principles is universal and fundamental. Together, they embody the core ideas of ITIL and ITSM.

ITIL 4 book responds to the realities of modern business and offers more flexible approaches than the previous versions. The processes in ITIL 4 are non-linear, and the final result of each of them can initiate new processes for continuous improvement of the service.

In this case, the client is seen not as a consumer of the service simply receiving the result, but as a partner. This helps them to influence the quality and functionality of the services provided.

In the ITIL 4 Foundations book [PDF attached], the first of the seven books in the new library, ITIL 4 guidelines are presented in detail. They are based on well-known techniques: Agile, Lean, DevOps, etc. That is, the guiding principles help to integrate best practices into a unified managing approach to IT services.

ITIL v4 Book key takeaways: Focus on value

Value is a key concept in ITIL v4 Foundation book. Value is what the customer receives as a result of using the service. The value of a car-sharing service or a taxi-booking application is that the client can get to his destination on time and with convenience. Apart from that, they are spared the drawbacks of using their own car - such as breakdowns or running out of fuel.

The principle is primarily concerned with creating value for the service customers. However, any service also affects the company's values which are manifested in different forms: profit, user loyalty, business growth, cost reduction. Everything an organization does, directly or indirectly, must be related to value which ultimately concerns all stakeholders.

Therefore, the service provider needs to determine who his direct customers are, and who the other stakeholders are: partners, investors, contractors, etc.

ITIL v4, PDF edition - key takeaway #2

The second point is determining what the consumer value is. To be able to do this, the company must know why the consumer is interested in its service, how this service helps the consumer to achieve their goals, and what their risks are.

Another component of value is the experience that consumers gets when interacting with a product and a supplier: User Experience (UX) or Customer Experience (CX). The experience can be objective (the client got what he wanted for the promised price) and subjective (the client does not like the design of the application interface). The customer experience needs to be managed.

ITIL Foundation PDF: an example from the book

Headquartered in London, a car rental service enters the Asia Pacific market. Preliminary research shows that Western customers traveling to Asia are primarily concerned about the safety of driving in unfamiliar conditions and lack of knowledge of local traffic rules.

The company develops special software - an intelligent driver assistant that monitors the situation on the road, evaluates the condition of the car and knows the specifics of the rules in a particular country. After the introduction of the assistant, the number of accidents and serious injuries decreases significantly.


In this case, the main value for the consumer is safety. The main values for the company are increasing customer loyalty, reducing repair costs and insurance premiums.

ITIL 4 Book key principles: Start where you are

Sometimes the owner proposes to abandon all previous developments and create a completely new product in an effort to optimize their product. For example, they may completely rewrite a mobile application instead of modifying it. This approach often leads to unplanned time, financial, and labor losses. You can disrupt working processes, lose tools and employees who could improve the product. If the existing developments can be used, use them.

Assess your surroundings. Collect accurate analytics to avoid unwarranted decisions, missed deadlines, cost overrun, and quality loss. This data allows you to decide which of the existing functionality of the service has value and can be used.

Project managers don’t have to be afraid to ask executors – for example, developers or designers - “stupid” questions. Sometimes the opinion of a person who is not as immersed in the context is helpful.

ITIL Foundation [PDF] Book: Progress iteratively with feedback

Projects should be broken down into a series of iterations. This way makes it easier to focus on and manage each of them. The main task of the project and the tasks of its iterations, for example, to improve the service, is a constant assessment of compliance with the current requirements. This allows you to adapt to changing circumstances and not lose the main value out of sight.

At the same time, reevaluation should be based on the feedback from users of the service. This allows you to see the progress and status of the project clearly. The more channels and methods of getting feedback, the better.

Sometimes the developer or provider has an outdated or specific view of the service that does not correspond to the needs of the user. The results of the next iteration help clarify new requirements, re-establish priorities, and initiate work that will improve the service.

This is where feedback is needed to help you better understand:

perception of a given value by the end user and consumer;the efficiency and effectiveness of the value chain;quality of the service and project management;the quality of interaction within the company, as well as with its partners and suppliers;the dynamics of the demand for the services and products;analyze the feedback received to identify possible risks and problems.
Making sense of change management (summary) pdf free download windows 7

Through a combination of iterative approach and feedback, the team becomes agile, responds faster to customer and business needs, detects and responds to issues earlier, and improves service quality.

Working with user reviews gives you an opportunity to respond to the requests quickly. Let's say you're making a travel app that's constantly improving. Gradually, the App Store accumulates user requests for the application to automatically calculate the distance traveled, so the development team focuses on adding this feature.

However, this works only if the application has no problem quickly adding new features. It should be noted that it is important to exercise revision and reassessment with moderation. Excessive analytics, contemplation, endless meetings can lead to 'analytical paralysis', where all efforts will be focused not on the project, but on the analysis of the current situation.

Also, don’t try to do everything at once: any new 'feature' can be released in the form of MVP (minimum viable product) and gradually expand its functionality.

ITIL foundation v4: Collaborate and promote visibility

Collaboration between departments is better than isolation. It is appropriate to recall an important condition of digital transformation here – namely the need to get rid of the “silo” or “bunker” approach, when a department works in a vacuum: it is focused only on its own tasks and is unaware of the company's values. This is often not the department's fault, as its processes and interactions with other departments are limited.

Another component of the principle is transparency. Processes and results of work should be visible and understandable to all participants. The more people know what is going on in the project and why, the easier it will be to connect and help. When, for example, only a small group of employees knows about a planned change, rumors and speculation appear. The silence leads the rest of the team to resist the change. Determine the range of stakeholders within the company. These can be developers, external and internal suppliers, analysts, CRM managers - all those who are somehow involved in the creation of the organization's value.

Some contributors may need to be more involved in the project. Others - act as reviewers, consultants, or approvers. So, in software development, advanced companies involve several teams in cooperation at once: developers, testers, product owners, customers, users.

ITIL 4 book (PDF): Holistic approach to IT services

A holistic approach to management is the understanding that the various activities of an organization are aimed at creating value.

No service or element used to provide a service is standalone. To follow this approach and deliver consistently good results, try to perceive any process as part of the value chain and take a holistic view of the associated processes, resources and practices.

Three Tips from ITIL 4 Foundation book for Taking a Holistic Approach

Know how to distinguish between complex and simple projects. The methods and rules that work in a simple system do not always work in a complex one, the components of which change frequently. Stakeholder collaboration can help solve problems holistically and without delay.Build on your knowledge in each area. This will help you determine what is important, what connections between the elements of the project affect the results. This way you can anticipate customer needs, set new standards and achieve a holistic approach.Automate your processes if possible. Automation not only helps to make work easier, but also makes the company's processes transparent. It is a tool for integrated, holistic management.

ITIL Foundation takeaways: Keep it simple and practical

The principle of using the minimum number of steps to achieve a goal is considered obvious but is often forgotten. If an action, process, service, or metric isn't delivering a useful result or adding value, don’t hesitate to discard of it.

The car rental app collects a lot of data, including information about the time it takes a user to fill out each form in the app to book a car. Research has shown that this data is of little use, and the real value is the data on how long the entire booking process takes.

As a result, the developers simplify the application interface and increase its work speed simply by removing the function of collecting optional data. In the process of creating or optimizing an IT service, it is best to start with the simplest model possible, and then gradually add new elements, actions or indicators - if they are really needed.

It also happens in another way: a new process is perceived by the employees as a waste of time. However, this new stage is important on a corporate scale and indirectly affects the value of the service. Therefore, employees must have a holistic view of what and how the organization does. Let individual teams or groups know how their work is influenced by others and how they affect others themselves.

Strike a balance between competing goals - leadership goals and implementer goals. Let's say the manager wants to collect a data set in order to make a strategic decision. Analysts believe that this process can be simplified, and the solution itself requires less information. You need to find the middle ground: get rid of everything that does not affect the final value.

ITIL Foundation PDF: Optimize and automate

Automation tools and technology help you complete repetitive, routine tasks by engaging people to find complex solutions. However, automation should not be introduced for the sake of automation alone: sometimes human participation is necessary to assess the key stages of the whole automated process.

Before automating, processes need to be optimized - within reasonable limits, taking into account financial, technical and other constraints. ITIL, Lean, DevOps, Kanban and other practices are suitable for optimization.

An example of automation in IT is the use of continuous integration and code delivery (CI / CD) methodology, when every change to the code is automatically tested at every stage of the build. However, automation also implies a more traditional approach - for example, reducing the amount of paperwork in a service center by introducing biometric collection of customer personal data.

ITIL 4 Foundation - download summary

In addition to knowing the ITIL guidelines, it is important to understand that they are interrelated. For example, if a company seeks to progress in an iterative approach and is improving feedback, it should be done in a holistic manner, so that each iteration implies the achievement of a specific result. The same principle applies to feedback: it is the key to collaboration that allows you to improve the service, make it more convenient for the client, and ultimately increase its value.


When making decisions, companies should be guided by a value focus and other principles that are appropriate for a specific scenario. The ITIL 4 guiding principles are recommendations that can be adopted and adapted to suit oneself: in the end, they are all based on reason and common sense.

Read more about the seven guiding principles in the ITIL 4 Foundation PDF book by Axelos.

ITIL 4 Book reviews

ITIL 4 review by Milan Ojstersek

“This book provides succinct content necessary for updating knowledge in modern ITSM with full support for all contemporary agile frameworks and for taking an ITIL Foundation exam. I enjoyed reading and listening to this book.”

ITIL 4 review by Rob in Seattle

“This book will provide a good backbone for your Foundation studies and get you up to speed on ITIL 4, a major upgrade from version 4”

ITIL 4 review by Peter

“I used this book to prepare for the ITIL exam. It’s an easy read with some examples to help understanding. I recommend this book for ITSM practitioners.”


ITIL 4 review by Matt

“Great intro to ITIL v4! Great detail, helpful concepts, and practical application all contribute to the effectiveness of this book in bringing ITIL v4 to life”

ITIL 4 review by Ammar

“Is great! Colored and the quality is good. I didn't expect anything better. 9 out of 10 :)”

ITIL 4 review by Kristy Trice

“My company uses ITIL a lot and this was a great book to get me familiar with processes, terminology, and functionality. I am preparing for the test and that along with some practice tests will get me there”

How to prepare and pass the ITIL 4 Foundation PDF exam

What materials are needed for preparation?

The official paper edition of the book ITIL 4 Foundation PDF from AXELOSAccredited training course on the basics of IT Service management in ITIL v4 PDFFree exam sample from AXELOS websiteOfficial Phone App Official ITIL 4Foundation App from AXELOSAXELOS ITIL 4 Foundation PDF CurriculumUdemy tests.

ITIL v4 Exam peculiarities

The exam is taken remotely and online. If desired, you can take the exam from the testing center. I rented from home. This has its pros and cons. From the pros: you don't need to go anywhere. Of the minuses: you take on all the risks associated with breaking the network.

The examiner can speak with a strong accent.

The wording of the questions is relatively complex, in no preparatory test have I come across such questions that were on a real exam, with the exception of questions on terminology. Synonyms are also used in the formulations. For example, the book says '... reduce incidents ...', and on the exam '... decrease interruptions ...'. Therefore, it will be difficult without knowledge of English.

AXELOS company does not plan to translate the book and the exam into other languages. There is even a petition on this occasion, which has already been signed by 775 people.

Some of the exam questions are not about the key features or definitions that are highlighted in bold text or a bright highlighter in the book, but about what is written deep in the paragraphs. Therefore, when preparing, it is important to read and analyze the chapters in full.

There are 40 questions in the exam and 1 hour and 15 minutes are given to take. This is more than enough. In practice, passing the exam does not take more than 30 minutes.

A few days after the exam, you will be sent a link to an electronic certificate (in my case, in 3 days), if desired, you can order a printed copy.


If you know English well, then you can prepare for the exam in 1 weekTo prepare on your own, only the official book and the application will be enoughPreparation for certification helps to understand the nature of IT service management and consolidate the understanding of the service approach in IT management.

ITIL Foundation PDF book Contents

Welcome to ITIL 4

About this publication

1. Introduction

1.1 IT service management in the modern world
1.2 About ITIL 4
1.3 The structure and benefits of the ITIL 4 framework
1.3.1 The ITIL SVS
1.3.2 The four dimensions model

2. Key concepts of service management

2.1 Value and value co-creation
2.1.1 Value co-creation
2.2 Organizations, service providers, service consumers, and other stakeholders
2.2.1 Service providers
2.2.2 Service consumers
2.2.3 Other stakeholders
2.3 Products and services
2.3.1 Configuring resources for value creation
2.3.2 Service offerings
2.4 Service relationships
2.4.1 The service relationship model
2.5 Value: outcomes, costs, and risks
2.5.1 Outcomes
2.5.2 Costs
2.5.3 Risks
2.5.4 Utility and warranty
2.6 Summary

3. The four dimensions of service management

3.1 Organizations and people
3.2 Information and technology
3.3 Partners and suppliers
3.4 Value streams and processes
3.4.1 Value streams for service management
3.4.2 Processes
3.5 External factors
3.6 Summary

4. The ITIL service value system

4.1 Service value system overview
4.2 Opportunity, demand, and value
4.3 The ITIL guiding principles
4.3.1 Focus on value
4.3.2 Start where you are
4.3.3 Progress iteratively with feedback
4.3.4 Collaborate and promote visibility
4.3.5 Think and work holistically
4.3.6 Keep it simple and practical
4.3.7 Optimize and automate
4.3.8 Principle interaction
4.4 Governance
4.4.1 Governing bodies and governance
4.4.2 Governance in the SVS
4.5 Service value chain
4.5.1 Plan
4.5.2 Improve
4.5.3 Engage
4.5.4 Design and transition
4.5.5 Obtain/build
4.5.6 Deliver and support
4.6 Continual improvement
4.6.1 Steps of the continual improvement model
4.6.2 Continual improvement and the guiding principles
4.7 Practices
4.8 Summary

5. ITIL management practices

5.1 General management practices
5.1.1 Architecture management
5.1.2 Continual improvement
5.1.3 Information security management
5.1.4 Knowledge management
5.1.5 Measurement and reporting
5.1.6 Organizational change management
5.1.7 Portfolio management
5.1.8 Project management
5.1.9 Relationship management
5.1.10 Risk management
5.1.11 Service financial management
5.1.12 Strategy management
5.1.13 Supplier management
5.1.14 Workforce and talent management
5.2 Service management practices
5.2.1 Availability management
5.2.2 Business analysis
5.2.3 Capacity and performance management
5.2.4 Change control
5.2.5 Incident management
5.2.6 IT asset management
5.2.7 Monitoring and event management
5.2.8 Problem management
5.2.9 Release management
5.2.10 Service catalogue management
5.2.11 Service configuration management
5.2.12 Service continuity management
5.2.13 Service design
5.2.14 Service desk
5.2.15 Service level management
5.2.16 Service request management
5.2.17 Service validation and testing
5.3 Technical management practices
5.3.1 Deployment management
5.3.2 Infrastructure and platform management
5.3.3 Software development and management

End note: The ITIL story, one year on

Appendix A: Examples of value streams


Further research



ITIL 4 Book Authors

Mark BashamLief AnderssonVirginia AraújoCraig BennionJoseph CaudleStefan CronholmPavel DeminDomitien DijonMarie DiRuzzaPhyllis DruckerJohn EdmondsDouglas FidlerAlfonso FigueroaJames GanderAnn GerwitzHannes GöbelBob GribbenDamian HarrisSimon HarrisDenise HeinleMatthew HelmPeter HeroJessica HinkalFrantz HoneggerPeter HubbardDmitriy IsaychenkoMarcus JacksonStéphane JoretMichael KeelingClaudine KoersShirley LacyAnton LykovCelisa ManlyCaspar MillerJames MonekDavid MoskowitzChristian NissenMark O’LoughlinTatiana OrlovaBen PageMitch PautzTatiana PeftievaDonka RaytchevaNicola ReevesFrances ScarffNikolai Schmidt-OttMark SmalleyChris WhiteheadPaul WilkinsonMartin WolfSarah WoodrowUlla Zeeberg

s+b celebrating 25 years: In 2004, John Jones, DeAnne Aguirre, and Matthew Calderone grappled with the most vexing of challenges that leaders face: how to shepherd your organization and its people through possibly wrenching change. Offering pointed but useful advice to senior executives, it remains one of the most-read articles in our collection — year in and year out — with several million views.

Updated: 10 Principles of Leading Change Management

Making Sense of Change Management. Expertly curated help for Making Sense of Change Management. Plus easy-to-understand solutions written by experts for thousands of other textbooks.You will get your 1st month of Bartleby for FREE when you bundle with these textbooks where solutions are available ($9.99 if sold separately.). Strategy Execution and Change Management Consultants - Kotter. The change-management approach should be fully integrated into program design and decision making, both informing and enabling strategic direction. It should be based on a realistic assessment of the organization’s history, readiness, and capacity to change. PDFMaking Sense of Change Management - Rackcdn.comb1ca250e5ed661ccf2f1-da4c1a3d22aa43eb816232.r10.cf1.rackcd. Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools, and techniques of organizational change / Esther Cameron, Mike Green. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7494-6435-6 – ISBN 978-0-7494-6436-3 1. Organizational change–Management. Teams in the workplace–Management.

This classic guide to organizational change management best practices has been updated for the current business environment. To read the newest article, click here. Or, to watch a related video, click on the play button above.

Way back when (pick your date), senior executives in large companies had a simple goal for themselves and their organizations: stability. Shareholders wanted little more than predictable earnings growth. Because so many markets were either closed or undeveloped, leaders could deliver on those expectations through annual exercises that offered only modest modifications to the strategic plan. Prices stayed in check; people stayed in their jobs; life was good.

Market transparency, labor mobility, global capital flows, and instantaneous communications have blown that comfortable scenario to smithereens. In most industries — and in almost all companies, from giants on down — heightened global competition has concentrated management’s collective mind on something that, in the past, it happily avoided: change. Successful companies, as Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter told s+b in 1999, develop “a culture that just keeps moving all the time.”

This presents most senior executives with an unfamiliar challenge. In major transformations of large enterprises, they and their advisors conventionally focus their attention on devising the best strategic and tactical plans. But to succeed, they also must have an intimate understanding of the human side of change management — the alignment of the company’s culture, values, people, and behaviors — to encourage the desired results. Plans themselves do not capture value; value is realized only through the sustained, collective actions of the thousands — perhaps the tens of thousands — of employees who are responsible for designing, executing, and living with the changed environment.

Long-term structural transformation has four characteristics: scale (the change affects all or most of the organization), magnitude (it involves significant alterations of the status quo), duration (it lasts for months, if not years), and strategic importance. Yet companies will reap the rewards only when change occurs at the level of the individual employee.

Many senior executives know this and worry about it. When asked what keeps them up at night, CEOs involved in transformation often say they are concerned about how the work force will react, how they can get their team to work together, and how they will be able to lead their people. They also worry about retaining their company’s unique values and sense of identity and about creating a culture of commitment and performance. Leadership teams that fail to plan for the human side of change often find themselves wondering why their best-laid plans have gone awry.

No single methodology fits every company, but there is a set of practices, tools, and techniques that can be adapted to a variety of situations. What follows is a “Top 10” list of guiding principles for change management. Using these as a systematic, comprehensive framework, executives can understand what to expect, how to manage their own personal change, and how to engage the entire organization in the process.

1. Address the “human side” systematically. Any significant transformation creates “people issues.” New leaders will be asked to step up, jobs will be changed, new skills and capabilities must be developed, and employees will be uncertain and resistant. Dealing with these issues on a reactive, case-by-case basis puts speed, morale, and results at risk. A formal approach for managing change — beginning with the leadership team and then engaging key stakeholders and leaders — should be developed early, and adapted often as change moves through the organization. This demands as much data collection and analysis, planning, and implementation discipline as does a redesign of strategy, systems, or processes. The change-management approach should be fully integrated into program design and decision making, both informing and enabling strategic direction. It should be based on a realistic assessment of the organization’s history, readiness, and capacity to change.

2. Start at the top. Because change is inherently unsettling for people at all levels of an organization, when it is on the horizon, all eyes will turn to the CEO and the leadership team for strength, support, and direction. The leaders themselves must embrace the new approaches first, both to challenge and to motivate the rest of the institution. They must speak with one voice and model the desired behaviors. The executive team also needs to understand that, although its public face may be one of unity, it, too, is composed of individuals who are going through stressful times and need to be supported.

Executive teams that work well together are best positioned for success. They are aligned and committed to the direction of change, understand the culture and behaviors the changes intend to introduce, and can model those changes themselves. At one large transportation company, the senior team rolled out an initiative to improve the efficiency and performance of its corporate and field staff before addressing change issues at the officer level. The initiative realized initial cost savings but stalled as employees began to question the leadership team’s vision and commitment. Only after the leadership team went through the process of aligning and committing to the change initiative was the work force able to deliver downstream results.

3. Involve every layer. As transformation programs progress from defining strategy and setting targets to design and implementation, they affect different levels of the organization. Change efforts must include plans for identifying leaders throughout the company and pushing responsibility for design and implementation down, so that change “cascades” through the organization. At each layer of the organization, the leaders who are identified and trained must be aligned to the company’s vision, equipped to execute their specific mission, and motivated to make change happen.

A major multiline insurer with consistently flat earnings decided to change performance and behavior in preparation for going public. The company followed this “cascading leadership” methodology, training and supporting teams at each stage. First, 10 officers set the strategy, vision, and targets. Next, more than 60 senior executives and managers designed the core of the change initiative. Then 500 leaders from the field drove implementation. The structure remained in place throughout the change program, which doubled the company’s earnings far ahead of schedule. This approach is also a superb way for a company to identify its next generation of leadership.

4. Make the formal case. Individuals are inherently rational and will question to what extent change is needed, whether the company is headed in the right direction, and whether they want to commit personally to making change happen. They will look to the leadership for answers. The articulation of a formal case for change and the creation of a written vision statement are invaluable opportunities to create or compel leadership-team alignment.

Three steps should be followed in developing the case: First, confront reality and articulate a convincing need for change. Second, demonstrate faith that the company has a viable future and the leadership to get there. Finally, provide a road map to guide behavior and decision making. Leaders must then customize this message for various internal audiences, describing the pending change in terms that matter to the individuals.

A consumer packaged-goods company experiencing years of steadily declining earnings determined that it needed to significantly restructure its operations — instituting, among other things, a 30 percent work force reduction — to remain competitive. In a series of offsite meetings, the executive team built a brutally honest business case that downsizing was the only way to keep the business viable, and drew on the company’s proud heritage to craft a compelling vision to lead the company forward. By confronting reality and helping employees understand the necessity for change, leaders were able to motivate the organization to follow the new direction in the midst of the largest downsizing in the company’s history. Instead of being shell-shocked and demoralized, those who stayed felt a renewed resolve to help the enterprise advance.

5. Create ownership. Leaders of large change programs must overperform during the transformation and be the zealots who create a critical mass among the work force in favor of change. This requires more than mere buy-in or passive agreement that the direction of change is acceptable. It demands ownership by leaders willing to accept responsibility for making change happen in all of the areas they influence or control. Ownership is often best created by involving people in identifying problems and crafting solutions. It is reinforced by incentives and rewards. These can be tangible (for example, financial compensation) or psychological (for example, camaraderie and a sense of shared destiny).

At a large health-care organization that was moving to a shared-services model for administrative support, the first department to create detailed designs for the new organization was human resources. Its personnel worked with advisors in cross-functional teams for more than six months. But as the designs were being finalized, top departmental executives began to resist the move to implementation. While agreeing that the work was top-notch, the executives realized they hadn’t invested enough individual time in the design process to feel the ownership required to begin implementation. On the basis of their feedback, the process was modified to include a “deep dive.” The departmental executives worked with the design teams to learn more, and get further exposure to changes that would occur. This was the turning point; the transition then happened quickly. It also created a forum for top executives to work as a team, creating a sense of alignment and unity that the group hadn’t felt before.

Making Sense Of Change Management (summary) Pdf Free Download For Mac

6. Communicate the message. Too often, change leaders make the mistake of believing that others understand the issues, feel the need to change, and see the new direction as clearly as they do. The best change programs reinforce core messages through regular, timely advice that is both inspirational and practicable. Communications flow in from the bottom and out from the top, and are targeted to provide employees the right information at the right time and to solicit their input and feedback. Often this will require overcommunication through multiple, redundant channels.

In the late 1990s, the commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service, Charles O. Rossotti, had a vision: The IRS could treat taxpayers as customers and turn a feared bureaucracy into a world-class service organization. Getting more than 100,000 employees to think and act differently required more than just systems redesign and process change. IRS leadership designed and executed an ambitious communications program including daily voice mails from the commissioner and his top staff, training sessions, videotapes, newsletters, and town hall meetings that continued through the transformation. Timely, constant, practical communication was at the heart of the program, which brought the IRS’s customer ratings from the lowest in various surveys to its current ranking above the likes of McDonald’s and most airlines.

7. Assess the cultural landscape. Successful change programs pick up speed and intensity as they cascade down, making it critically important that leaders understand and account for culture and behaviors at each level of the organization. Companies often make the mistake of assessing culture either too late or not at all. Thorough cultural diagnostics can assess organizational readiness to change, bring major problems to the surface, identify conflicts, and define factors that can recognize and influence sources of leadership and resistance. These diagnostics identify the core values, beliefs, behaviors, and perceptions that must be taken into account for successful change to occur. They serve as the common baseline for designing essential change elements, such as the new corporate vision, and building the infrastructure and programs needed to drive change.

8. Address culture explicitly. Once the culture is understood, it should be addressed as thoroughly as any other area in a change program. Leaders should be explicit about the culture and underlying behaviors that will best support the new way of doing business, and find opportunities to model and reward those behaviors. This requires developing a baseline, defining an explicit end-state or desired culture, and devising detailed plans to make the transition.

Company culture is an amalgam of shared history, explicit values and beliefs, and common attitudes and behaviors. Change programs can involve creating a culture (in new companies or those built through multiple acquisitions), combining cultures (in mergers or acquisitions of large companies), or reinforcing cultures (in, say, long-established consumer goods or manufacturing companies). Understanding that all companies have a cultural center — the locus of thought, activity, influence, or personal identification — is often an effective way to jump-start culture change.

A consumer goods company with a suite of premium brands determined that business realities demanded a greater focus on profitability and bottom-line accountability. In addition to redesigning metrics and incentives, it developed a plan to systematically change the company’s culture, beginning with marketing, the company’s historical center. It brought the marketing staff into the process early to create enthusiasts for the new philosophy who adapted marketing campaigns, spending plans, and incentive programs to be more accountable. Seeing these culture leaders grab onto the new program, the rest of the company quickly fell in line.

9. Prepare for the unexpected. No change program goes completely according to plan. People react in unexpected ways; areas of anticipated resistance fall away; and the external environment shifts. Effectively managing change requires continual reassessment of its impact and the organization’s willingness and ability to adopt the next wave of transformation. Fed by real data from the field and supported by information and solid decision-making processes, change leaders can then make the adjustments necessary to maintain momentum and drive results.

A leading U.S. health-care company was facing competitive and financial pressures from its inability to react to changes in the marketplace. A diagnosis revealed shortcomings in its organizational structure and governance, and the company decided to implement a new operating model. In the midst of detailed design, a new CEO and leadership team took over. The new team was initially skeptical, but was ultimately convinced that a solid case for change, grounded in facts and supported by the organization at large, existed. Some adjustments were made to the speed and sequence of implementation, but the fundamentals of the new operating model remained unchanged.

10. Speak to the individual. Change is both an institutional journey and a very personal one. People spend many hours each week at work; many think of their colleagues as a second family. Individuals (or teams of individuals) need to know how their work will change, what is expected of them during and after the change program, how they will be measured, and what success or failure will mean for them and those around them. Team leaders should be as honest and explicit as possible. People will react to what they see and hear around them, and need to be involved in the change process. Highly visible rewards, such as promotion, recognition, and bonuses, should be provided as dramatic reinforcement for embracing change. Sanction or removal of people standing in the way of change will reinforce the institution’s commitment.

Most leaders contemplating change know that people matter. It is all too tempting, however, to dwell on the plans and processes, which don’t talk back and don’t respond emotionally, rather than face up to the more difficult and more critical human issues. But mastering the “soft” side of change management needn’t be a mystery.

Author Profiles:

Making Sense Of Change Management (summary) Pdf Free Download Windows 7

  • John Jones is a vice president with Booz Allen Hamilton in New York. Mr. Jones is a specialist in organization design, process reengineering, and change management.
  • DeAnne Aguirre ([email protected]) is an advisor to executives on organizational topics for Strategy&, PwC's strategy consulting business, and a principal with PwC US. Based in San Diego, she specializes in culture, leadership, talent effectiveness, and organizational change management.
  • Matthew Calderone is a senior associate with Booz Allen Hamilton in the New York Office. He specializes in organization transformation, people issues, and change management.

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The 8-Step Process for Leading Change was cultivated from over four decades of Dr. Kotter’s observations of countless leaders and organizations as they were trying to transform or execute their strategies. He identified and extracted the success factors and combined them into a methodology — 8-Step Process for Leading Change.

Since the introduction of the 8 Steps, Dr. Kotter expanded his focus from research to impact with the founding of Kotter. Together with the firm, he evolved the 8-Step Process from its original version in Leading Change to the version outlined in his 2014 book, Accelerate. Download the eBook below to learn more about this award-winning methodology.

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The 8-step Process for Leading Change