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University Printing House, Cambridge cb2 8bs, United Kingdom One Liberty Plaza, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10006, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia 4843/24, 2nd Floor, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, Delhi –110002, India 79 Anson Road, #06–04/06, Singapore 079906 Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/elt © Cambridge University Press 2017 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1997 Fourth edition A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-131662831-7 Edition with answers and ebook ISBN 978-131663171-3 Edition with answers ISBN 978-131663172-0 ebook Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.
Contents Thanks 29 On the road Introduction 30 Notices and warnings Learning Education and study 31 Classroom language 1 Learning vocabulary 32 School education 2 Keeping a vocabulary notebook 33 Studying English and taking exams 3 Using a dictionary 34 University education 4 English language words Work and business The world around us 35 Jobs 36 Talking about your work 5 Country, nationality and language 37 Making a career 6 The physical world 38 Working in an office 7 Weather 39 Running a company 8 Animals and insects 40 Business and finance People Leisure and entertainment 41 Sport and leisure 9 The body and movement 42 Competitive sport 10 Describing appearance 43 Books and films 11 Describing character 44 Music 12 Feelings 45 Special events 13 Family and friends 14 Growing up Tourism 15 Romance, marriage and divorce 46 Travel bookings 47 Air travel Daily life 48 Hotels and restaurants 16 Daily routines 49 Cafés 17 The place where you live 50 Sightseeing holidays 18 Around the home 51 Holidays by the sea 19 Money 20 Health Communication and technology 21 Clothes 52 Newspapers and television 22 Fashion and buying clothes 53 Phoning and texting 23 Shopping 54 Computers 24 Food 55 Email and the Internet 25 Cooking 26 City life 27 Life in the country 28 Transport English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 3
Social issues Key verbs 56 Crime 81 Make, do and take: 57 Politics 58 Climate change uses and phrases 59 War and violence 82 Key verbs: give, keep and miss Concepts 83 Get: uses, phrases and 60 Time 61 Numbers phrasal verbs 62 Distance, dimensions and size 63 Objects, materials, shapes 84 Go: meanings and expressions 85 The senses and colour Words and grammar 64 Containers and quantities 86 Uncountable nouns 87 Verb constructions 1 Functional language 88 Verb constructions 2 65 Apologies, excuses and thanks 89 Adjectives 66 Requests, permission 90 Prepositions: place and movement 91 Adverbs and suggestions Connecting and linking 67 Opinions, agreeing 92 Time and sequence 93 Addition and contrast and disagreeing 94 Reason, purpose, result, condition 68 Likes, dislikes, attitudes Style and register 95 Formal and informal English and preferences 96 Completing forms and CVs 97 Writing an essay 69 Greetings, farewells and special 98 Formal letters and emails 99 Informal emails and messages expressions 100 Abbreviations Word formation Answer key 70 Prefixes: changing meaning 71 Suffixes: forming nouns Phonemic symbols 72 Suffixes: forming adjectives 73 Compound nouns Index Phrase building Acknowledgements 74 Word partners 75 Fixed phrases █Ho█w█to█us█e █the█e█bo█ok█ 76 Fixed phrases in conversation 77 Verb or adjective + preposition 78 Prepositional phrases 79 Phrasal verbs 1: form and meaning 80 Phrasal verbs 2: grammar and style 4 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Thanks Sabina Ostrowska wrote two new units for the Fourth Edition: Unit 46, Travel Bookings and Unit 49, Cafés. The publishers would like to thank Sabina for her contribution to this edition. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 5
Introduction To the student This book will help you learn more than 2,000 words and phrases, and you can use it without a teacher. There are 100 units in the book. You can study them in any order, but the first four units have information about vocabulary that will help you with your learning. Here is what the pages look like: The left-hand page presents Pictures and the new vocabulary. diagrams show the meaning of some words. New vocabulary is in bold. Example The right-hand sentences help page practises the you to understand new vocabulary. new words. There is space for you to write your answers. There is an example in Over to you is a each exercise to help you. chance for you to use the new words to write about yourself, your life and your country. After you do the exercises, you can check your answers in the Answer key at the back of the book. You will also find possible answers for most of the Over to you exercises. The Index at the back of the book has all the new words and phrases from the units, with a phonemic transcription to help you with pronunciation. If you have the edition with the ebook, you can listen to the pronunciation of all the new vocabulary, and there are more practice exercises as well. see p262 for more information about the ebook. It is a good idea to have a dictionary when you use the book. sometimes you may want a bilingual dictionary, so you can find a translation; sometimes the book asks you to use an English dictionary for an exercise. You also need a notebook when you are studying. The study units 1–4 in this book will give you ideas and information to help you to use your notebook and become a better learner. I hope you enjoy using this book. 6 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
To the teacher This book can be used in class or for self-study. It is intended for learners at the upper A2 level and B1 level on the Council of Europe scale, and teaches more than 2,000 words and phrases. The vocabulary is organised around common everyday topics, but also contains units on different aspects of language such as phrasal verbs, uncountable nouns and link words and phrases. These units provide key information about lexis, but also help to ensure that learners are exposed to the most important vocabulary for their level. The first four units are dedicated to aspects of vocabulary learning such as record keeping and dictionary use. The book has been written so that units can be studied in any order, but I recommend you look at these four study units first, as they provide learners with important advice about vocabulary learning in general. Throughout the book, vocabulary items have been chosen for their usefulness in a wide range of everyday situations, and this task has been made easier by having access to the English Profile (EP). Forming part of a large research programme sponsored by the Council of Europe, the EP helps teachers and students identify the words or phrases that a learner can be expected to know at each level of the Common European Framework. The words and phrases have mainly been selected using the Cambridge Learner Corpus, examination wordlists and classroom materials, and in this book the main focus is on words and phrases at the upper end of the A2 level and across the B1 level. Much of the new vocabulary (on average about 25 items per unit) is presented through different types of text, and then explained immediately after the item appears, or in a separate glossary below the text; some words are presented in tables or lists, and contextualised in sentence examples; some of the new vocabulary is presented in pictures and diagrams. The new vocabulary is then practised on the right-hand pages through a wide range of exercise types. These pages generally progress from easier to more difficult exercises, with items often tested receptively first, e.g. through a matching or grouping exercise, before moving on to more challenging productive exercises such as gap-fill texts or sentence transformations. In many units, the final exercise is called Over to you. This indicates a personalised exercise, in which learners have an opportunity to use some of the new vocabulary to talk about themselves, their lives and their country, and sometimes to express their own personal opinions. These make ideal classroom speaking activities for pairs or groups, but many of the exercises on the right-hand page can be adapted for speaking practice. For example, where there are short question and answer dialogues, students can first read the dialogues out loud, then one student can ask the questions, and their partner has to respond appropriately using target vocabulary from the unit, but without referring to the book. There is a comprehensive Answer key at the back of the book, as well as an Index of all the vocabulary taught with a phonemic pronunciation guide and a unit reference to where each item appears. Find more resources for teachers at www.cambridge.org/elt/inuse We hope you enjoy using this new edition. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 7
Study Learning vocabulary 1unit A Using this book It’s a good idea to have a routine when you use this book. [something you do often and usually in the same way] For example: • a weekly routine when you study a new unit for at least [not less than] 30–45 minutes; • a daily routine when you revise that unit. [study it again] You may only need to revise for five or ten minutes each time. 1.1 Over to you Write your answers. 1 How often can you spend at least half an hour or forty- five minutes on a unit? 2 How often can you revise? How much time can you spend when you revise? Where will you do it? B Studying a new unit When you are studying a unit for the first time, you need to be active when you are learning. • With a new word or phrase, say it aloud [speak it so you can hear it], and repeat it to yourself silently [in your head, not speaking]. If you have the eBook that goes with the book, use it to check the pronunciation. • Use a highlighter pen to mark words you think are important or difficult. • Write down new words and phrases in your notebook. (See Unit 2 for more information.) • Always try to write an example sentence for new words. You can choose an example from this book or a dictionary, but an example from your own life will often help you to remember a word, e.g. I shared a flat with an Australian girl when I was in London last year. • Do exercises in pencil, then you can rub them out (using a rubber) and do them again later. This is a good way to revise vocabulary. 1.2 Over to you Write your answers. 1 Which of these things do you do now when you are learning vocabulary? 2 What will you do in the future? C Revising a unit When you are revising a unit one or two days later, it is also important to be as active as possible. • Test yourself, e.g. look at a word and cover the meaning. Can you remember what the meaning is? If you can’t, check the meaning, then come back to the word in five minutes’ time and test yourself again. • Look at what you wrote in your notebook when you first studied the unit. Is there any new information you want to add, e.g. something about the pronunciation, or a common word partner? (See Unit 2.) • Diagrams may help you to organise some of the vocabulary differently, and help you to remember it. 8 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
Who took Let’s take a 1.3 Over to you 1 Study my pen? break now. unit take Write your answers. 1 Do you revise vocabulary that you study? If so, how often? I took notes What size shoes 2 Will you try to revise more often in the future? during the lecture. do you take? If so, will you use some of the ideas above? D Expanding* your vocabulary • When you learn a word, e.g. dirty, think of synonyms (syn) [words with a similar meaning] or opposites (opp) in your language. Look them up in a bilingual dictionary to find the English words, then look up the English words in an English dictionary to check the meaning. From this, you will find that the opposite of dirty is clean, and you may also find filthy [very dirty]. * making something bigger 1.4 Using this method, find opposites for the words in bold. 1 My room is very clean. opp dirty 2 It’s a permanent job. opp 3 He was kind to all of his animals. opp 4 Babies have very soft, smooth skin. opp 5 Where’s the entrance? opp 6 Was the bird dead? opp 7 Did they accept the invitation? opp • Building word families (see Units 70–72) will also help to expand your vocabulary. From a noun, verb or adjective, you can often find related words in the dictionary with a similar meaning. So, you can often learn two or three words, and not just one, e.g. argue v = have an angry discussion; n = argument. 1.5 Use a dictionary to find the related parts of speech for the words in bold. 1 She gave me some advice. verb advise verb adj 2 We mustn’t argue. noun 3 I will have to revise this unit. noun 4 Is there a choice? verb 5 I want to expand my vocabulary. noun 6 The two boys are very different. noun 7 They need to communicate more. noun • Try to read and listen to English as much as possible. The more you read and listen, the more you will learn. When you read, try to: – Highlight or underline interesting new words. – Highlight words if they are familiar but you can’t remember the meaning. • There is a lot of spoken English on the Internet which you can play again and again. Try to make a note of interesting words and look up the meaning. 1.6 Over to you Now choose a unit that interests you. Study the left-hand page, then do the exercises in pencil. Wait for at least 24 hours, revise the unit, then answer these questions. 1 How many answers did you get right the first time? 2 How many answers did you get right the second time? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 9
Study Keeping a vocabulary notebook 2unit A What do you do? cup saucer mug This is what some students do. RAFAEL I write down new English words and phrases in my notebook, and next to each one I write a Spanish translation. I usually write down if a word is a noun, verb, adjective, and so on. KAZUO I sometimes write a word in phonemics because English pronunciation is very difficult for me. But my notebook is a mess [nothing is in a good order; syn untidy]. I like to draw pictures. EUN I sometimes make a note of new words in my notebook, but I often forget [don’t remember]. I usually write a translation, and sometimes I write example sentences as well. ANDREY I’ve got a notebook. I don’t use it much but when I do, I try and list words by topic, so I put all the animals together, and all the clothes words together, and so on. I find it’s easier to remember the words this way. DONATA I note down new words and phrases. Sometimes I translate them into Polish, and sometimes I write an explanation [a description of what something means] in English if it is not difficult. For example: kitten – a very young cat B Tips for your notebook A tip is a piece of advice to help you. Here are some tips for your notebook. • Put words from one topic in the same place, e.g. food in one place, clothes in another, etc. Don’t mix them up [put them together with no order]. You can also have grammar topics, e.g. ‘uncountable nouns’, or a page for words that all have a connection, e.g. words and phrases that were all in a story you read in English. Some words and phrases will go in more than one topic. • If you can’t find a topic for a new word or phrase, e.g. useful or in particular, put them in a different place in your notebook, e.g. a page for each day or each week, or perhaps one page for every English lesson you have. Write the date clearly at the top, e.g. Monday 14th May. • When you write down new vocabulary, write a translation if it is necessary [you need it; opp unnecessary], but also write the meaning in English if it is possible, or draw pictures. • If possible, add synonyms, opposites, other parts of speech, etc. (See Unit 1.) awful adj = terrible (syn dreadful) enjoy v = like something and get pleasure from it n = enjoyment adj = enjoyable • Example sentences help you with the grammar of a word, or with word partners (collocations). I enjoy living in a big city. (NOT I enjoy to live in a big city.) (See Units 87–8.) I spent two weeks in Rome. (NOT I passed two weeks in Rome. You spend time in a place.) (See Unit 74.) • Remember, words often have more than one meaning that you need to know, e.g. a tip is also money that you give, for example, to a waiter for serving you in a restaurant. 10 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
Exercises 2 Study unit 2.1 Organise the words into the topics below. One word can go in two different topics. Use a dictionary to help you. diet branch lay the table count v dig v ground flour add up raw leaf minus butcher thousand frozen zero butterfly food garden numbers diet 2.2 Explain these words in English, or draw a picture, or if you think an explanation is too difficult and a drawing is not possible, write a translation instead. 1 raw not cooked 2 dig 3 butcher 4 leaf 5 flour 6 lay the table 7 add up 8 minus 2.3 What information could you include with these words? The answers are all on the opposite page. 1 forget opposite – remember 2 awful 3 necessary 4 translate 5 tip 6 enjoy 2.4 Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, compare your answers with someone else. 1 Look again at what the students said on the opposite page. What are the good things that they do? Underline them. 2 Do you do all of these things? 3 Is there anything you don’t do now, but will do in the future? 4 At the moment, which person’s notebook is most like your notebook? 5 What are the most useful tips on the opposite page for you? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 11
Study Using a dictionary 3unit A What dictionaries do I need? A bilingual dictionary [using two languages] is easy for you to understand, and quick and easy to use. A dictionary in English will give you reading practice in English and many more examples of how words are used. If possible, use both. These are good dictionaries in English for your level, and most of them are available online: Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary Oxford Wordpower Dictionary Longman Active Study Dictionary Macmillan Essential Dictionary B Information in dictionaries If you look up a word [find a word in a dictionary] using the Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary, the information is shown like this: pronunciation fun1 /fʌn/ noun [u] part of speech using (= noun) phonemic 1 enjoyment or pleasure, or something 2 for fun/for the fun of it [U] tells you that fun symbols (see is uncountable (see page 247) that gives you enjoyment or pleasure for pleasure and not for any other reason Unit 86) a definition explains the She’s great fun to be with. 3 make fun of sb/sth fixed phrases using meaning Have fun! (= enjoy yourself) the word are shown bold italics It’s no fun having to work late every to make a joke about someone or in bold (see Units show common night. something in an unkind way. 75–6) word partners examples are in (see Unit 74) The other children at school used to italics make fun of his hair. 3.1 Correct the spelling mistakes. Use a dictionary to check your answers. 1 allways always 6 confortable 7 accomodation 2 realy 8 beautifull 3 unfortunatly 9 unbeleivable 4 expecially 10 neccesary 5 cloths 3.2 In the word island /ˈaɪlənd/, the letter ‘s’ is silent (not pronounced). Use your dictionary to find the silent letters in these words. 1 knee 2 comb 3 castle 4 salmon 5 receipt C Defining words ‘Defining words’ are words that dictionaries use when they define [explain] the words in the dictionary. Some of these are quite common. emphasise [give something more attention and importance], e.g. My teacher has always emphasised the importance of writing down new words in a notebook. relating to or connected to/with [having a relationship with someone or something], e.g. musical is connected with / related to music amount [how much there is of something], e.g. £5 million is a large amount of money. official [done by the government or someone in authority], e.g. A passport is an official document. behave [do or say things in a particular way], e.g. People can behave strangely when they’re nervous. 12 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
Exercises 3 Study unit 3.3 Complete the dictionary definitions using words from the box. connected with emphasise relating to behave official amount 1 industrial / ɪnˈdʌstriəl/ 1 adjective connected with industry 2 sum /sʌm/ noun [C] an of money 3 pretend /prɪˈtend/ verb [I,T] to as if something is true when it is not 4 certificate /səˈtɪfɪkət/ noun [C] an document that gives details to show something is true 5 not at all /nɒt ət ɔːl/ used instead of ‘no’ or ‘not’ to what you are saying: I’m not at all happy about it 6 legal /ˈliːgəl/ adjective the law D Using a dictionary • When you use a dictionary to check the meaning of a word, put a tick (✓) next to it. Each time you return to a page with a tick, see [find out] if you remember the word. • When you meet a new word or phrase in a text, first try to guess the meaning [try to think of the meaning when you don’t know it]. Then, use a dictionary to see if your guess was correct. • Don’t just read the dictionary definition. Example phrases and sentences show you how a word or phrase is used, and they help you to understand the meaning more clearly. • If you look up a word in a bilingual dictionary and get two or three different translations, check these words in an English dictionary to see which translation is the best one for the situation. • Remember that many words have more than one meaning. The first meaning in the dictionary is not always the one you want. You may need to read through the different meanings. 3.4 Answer the questions, and use an English dictionary to check the answers. 1 What does puppy mean? It’s a very young dog. 2 Is the correct spelling organize or organise? 3 What part of speech is extremely? 4 What kind of noun is advice? 5 What preposition follows the verb rely? 6 Look up friend, and then the words in bold that are often used with it. Can you complete these phrases? She’s an friend; he’s my friend; you friends with people. 3.5 Match the sentences on the right with the different meanings of post on the left. post1 /pəʊst/ noun 3 Job [c] formal 1 He’s applied for a post overseas. 1 System [no plural] UK (US mail) a job 2 Did you send the the system for sending letters, A part-time post. cheque by post? parcels, etc A teaching post. 3 I tied the flag Your letter is in the post. 4 Pole [c] to a post. I’m sending the documents by post. a long, vertical piece of wood or 4 We haven’t 2 Letters [u] UK (US mail) metal fixed into the ground at had any post yet. one end. letters, parcels, etc that you send or receive I found the dog tied to a post. Has the post arrived/come yet? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 13
Study English language words 4unit A Parts of speech I have a brown leather chair by the window, and I often sit there in the morning to listen to music. In the sentence above, I is a pronoun; chair, window, morning and music are all nouns; have, sit and listen are verbs; brown and leather are adjectives; often is an adverb; by and to are prepositions; the is a definite article; a is an indefinite article; and is a conjunction or link word. Here are two more examples: We saw an elephant at the zoo yesterday. Elephant and zoo are nouns; saw is a verb; at is a preposition; an is an indefinite article; the is a definite article. It was a cold night, so I walked quickly. Was and walked are verbs; cold is an adjective; night is a noun; quickly is an adverb; so is a link word. B Grammar When you are learning vocabulary, you need to know certain things about different words; for example, if nouns are countable, e.g. books, apples, chairs; or uncountable, e.g. information (NOT informations), advice (NOT advices). (See Unit 86.) With verbs, you need to know if they are regular, e.g. work, live, etc; or irregular, e.g. go/went, take/took. You will also need to learn the grammar of phrasal verbs, e.g. take something off, wake up. (See Units 79–80.) You also need to learn certain groups of words as phrases, e.g. at the moment, never mind, see you later. (See Units 75–6.) C Word building In the word uncomfortable, un- is a prefix, and -able is a suffix. Other common prefixes include in- and dis-, e.g. incorrect and dislike. Common suffixes include -ment and -ive, e.g. improvement and attractive. (See Units 70–72.) D Pronunciation Dictionaries show the pronunciation of a word using phonemic symbols, e.g. book /bʊk/, before /bɪˈfɔː/, cinema /ˈsɪnəmə/. Every word has one or more syllables, e.g. book has one syllable, before has two syllables, cinema has three syllables. It is important to know which syllable to stress, e.g. on before it is the second syllable (be'fore), on cinema it is the first syllable ('cinema). The vertical mark ' shows where the stressed syllable begins. E Punctuation Every sentence must begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop. Some sentences have a comma, which often shows a pause [when you stop reading or speaking for a short time] in a long sentence. Did you also know that a question must end with a question mark? 14 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
Exercises 4 Study unit 4.1 Put the words into the correct columns. noun comma phonemic symbol adverb stress question mark syllable preposition full stop adjective parts of speech punctuation pronunciation noun 4.2 There is one word missing in each line of the text. Where does the missing word go? What could it be? What part of speech is it? Last year I went to for my holiday. I spent the first 1 Spain (noun) week Seville staying with a couple of friends, and then I a train to Barcelona, where I spent another 2 ten days. It is beautiful city and I had a marvellous 3 time. I stayed in a very hotel right in the centre, but 4 I didn’t mind spending a lot money because it was a 5 wonderful and it was very convenient. My brother was 6 the person who recommended it; he goes Spain a lot 7 and he stays anywhere else. I may go back next year 8 if have enough time. 9 10 4.3 Answer the questions. 1 What type of verb is break? an irregular verb 2 What does a sentence begin with? 3 What do you put at the end of every sentence? 4 What’s missing here. 5 What shows you there is a pause in the middle of a long sentence? 6 What type of noun is butter? 7 What type of verbs are pick somebody up and grow up? 8 What are full stop and comma examples of? 9 How do dictionaries show the pronunciation of a word? 10 Is the ‘a’ in phrase pronounced the same as can, can’t or late? 4.4 Mark the stress on each word. How many syllables are there? ' English 2 informal opposite syllable decide adjective education pronunciation 4.5 Look at these words and answer the questions. cheap dangerous kind lucky 1 What part of speech are these words? adjectives 2 Can you change the first two words into adverbs? 3 Is the pronunciation of kind like wind (noun) or find (verb)? 4 What prefix do you need to form the opposite of the last two words? 5 What suffix makes a noun from kind? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 15
5 Country, nationality and language A Who speaks what where? country nationality language Australia Australian English Brazil Brazilian Portuguese China Chinese Mandarin (and Cantonese) Egypt Egyptian Arabic France French French Germany German German Greece Greek Greek Israel Israeli Hebrew Italy Italian Italian Japan Japanese Japanese (South) Korea Korean Korean Poland Polish Polish Russia Russian Russian Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Arabic Spain Spanish Spanish Switzerland Swiss Swiss-German, French, Italian Thailand Thai Thai Turkey Turkish Turkish the UK (United Kingdom)* British English the USA (United States of America) American English *the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) I come from Argentina, so I’m Argentinian and my first language is Spanish. The capital is Buenos Aires, which has a population of more than 10 million people. Common mistakes He’s English. (NOT He’s english.); We ate French food. (NOT We ate France food.) I went to the USA. (NOT I went to USA.) I also visited the UK. (NOT I also visited UK.) B Parts of the world The continents in the world are Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, South America, Australia [Australia and New Zealand] and Antarctica. We also use these terms for different parts of the world: the Middle East (e.g. United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia), the Far East (e.g. Thailand, Japan), the Caribbean (e.g. Jamaica, Barbados), Scandinavia (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland). C The people When we are talking about people from a particular country, we add ‘s’ to nationalities ending in ‘-i’ or ‘-(i)an’, but we need the definite article (the) for most others. Brazilians/Russians are … The British / The French are … Thais/Israelis The Swiss / The Japanese With both groups we can also use the word ‘people’, e.g. Brazilian people, British people, etc. 16 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
. Exercises 5.1 Answer the questions. 1 What nationality are people from Poland? Polish 2 What nationality are people from Thailand? 3 What language is spoken in Spain? 4 Where do people speak Hebrew? 5 Where do people speak Mandarin? 6 What language is spoken in Brazil? 7 What language is spoken in Egypt? 8 What nationality are people from Germany? 9 Write down three countries whose first language is English. 10 Write down three languages spoken in Switzerland. 5.2 What parts of the world are these countries in? Write the continent, e.g. Europe, or the area, e.g. the Far East. 1 Germany Europe 4 Italy 5 Jamaica 2 Japan 6 Argentina 3 Saudi Arabia 5.3 Underline the main stress in the words in the box, and practise saying them. Use the pronunciation in the index to help you. Brazilian Japan Egyptian Arabic Scandinavia Chinese Portuguese Australia Saudi Arabia 5.4 Write the answers. 1 Bangkok is the capital of Thailand . 4 Moscow is the capital of . . 5 Buenos Aires is the capital of . .2 Ankara is the capital of . 6 Athens is the capital of 3 Seoul is the capital of . 5.5 Complete the sentences with the name of the people from the country on the right. 1 I’ve worked a lot with the French . FRANCE 2 I know lots of . GERMANY 3 We do a lot of business with . JAPAN 4 I used to know a lot of . ISRAEL 5 I have always found very friendly. BRAZIL 6 People often say that are very reserved. BRITAIN 7 are very organised. SWITZERLAND 8 I met a lot of on my trip to Moscow. RUSSIA 5.6 Over to you Answer the questions for you, then ask a friend – if possible, someone from a different country – and write their answers. 1 What’s your nationality? 2 What’s the capital city and population of your country? 3 What’s your first language? 4 What other languages do you speak? 5 Which countries have you visited? 6 Which countries would you like to visit? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 17
6 The physical world A Facts The Krubera- DID YOU KNOW...? Voronja Cave Two thirds of the surface1 of the The Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Beijing-Hangshou Earth2, is covered in, water. Canal is the longest canal in the Grand Canal world. It is 1,794 kilometres long. El Azizia in Libya is the hottest place The Angel Falls in the world, where temperatures The highest waterfall in the world of over3 57 °C (57 degrees Celsius) is the Angel Falls in Venezuela. It have been recorded. is 979 metres high. The coldest place on earth is probably The Amazon Rainforest is the Vostok in Antarctica, which reached a largest rainforest in the world, temperature of minus 89 °C. covering 40% of the South American continent. The Krubera-Voronja Cave near the Black Sea coast in Georgia, is the The Pacifi c is the largest ocean deepest cave in the world. It is over in the world, and is nearly twice the 2000 metres deep. size of the Atlantic Ocean. 1 the top or outside part 2 the planet we live on 3 more than Language help Cover can mean that something is over something else, e.g. The surface was covered in water; The ground was covered with snow. Cover can also refer to the size of something, e.g. The Amazon rainforest covers 40% of South America, or the distance you travel, e.g. We covered ten miles in one day. B Geography Switzerland consists of [is made or formed from] three main geographical regions [areas in a country or the world]: The Swiss Plateau, The Jura, and The Alps. Switzerland is a land of contrasts [big differences], with completely different landscapes [the appearance of an area of land]. The climate [weather conditions] can also change within a very short distance. For example, Ascona in the south has an almost Mediterranean climate, but the Dufour Peak in Valais has a very cold climate. The distance between the two is just 70 kilometres. Basel Lake north Bern Constance St Gallen north-west north-east Zurich west east Locarno Lake south-west south-east Geneva south Geneva 18 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
Exercises 6.1 Look at the map of Switzerland and complete the sentences. 1 Zurich is in the north . . 2 The Jura mountains are 3 Geneva is . 4 St Gallen is . 5 Basel is 6 Lake Constance is . 7 Locarno is . . 6.2 Test your knowledge. Can you complete these sentences without looking at the opposite page? 1 Two thirds of the surface of the Earth is covered in water. 2 Vostok in Antarctica is the . 3 El Azizia in Libya is the . 4 The Krubera-Voronja is the deepest in the world. 5 The Beijing–Hangzhou Grand is the longest in the world. 6 At 979 metres the Angel Falls is the highest in the world. 7 The Amazon is the largest . 8 The largest in the world is the Pacific. 9 The we live on is called the Earth. 6.3 Complete the sentences. 1 Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world . 2 In the autumn, the ground is in leaves that have fallen off the trees. 3 You find this animal in the semi-desert of Australia. 4 Brazil is a country of : large empty areas inland, and cities near the coast. 5 The Amazon rainforest 40% of the South American continent. 6 Mountains and lakes are typical of the in Switzerland. 7 It was a freezing night. The was well below zero. 8 Switzerland of three main geographical regions. 9 It takes the moon just under 28 days to go round the . 10 People say Cape Town in South Africa has a wonderful : sunny for much of the year, and never too hot or very cold. 11 The from London to Paris is 340 kilometres; that’s less than the from London to Edinburgh. 12 When the temperature fell to 10 Celsius, all the schools in the town closed. 6.4 Over to you Answer the questions about your country and your region. 1 What are the highest and lowest temperatures? 2 Do you like the climate? 3 Are there any regions which have a very different landscape from the rest of the country? 4 Do you have any long canals, or famous caves or waterfalls? 5 How would you describe the landscape in the region where you live? 6 What’s the distance from the place where you live to the next big town? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 19
7 Weather A Weather conditions Notice that it is very common to form adjectives by adding -y. noun adjective noun adjective verb fog foggy sun sunny the sun is shining cloud cloudy wind windy the wind is blowing the cold cold snow snowy it’s snowing ice icy rain wet it’s raining There are common word partners to describe weather conditions: It was very cloudy this morning, but the sun came out after lunch. [appeared] The accident happened in thick fog [bad fog]. We had some heavy rain at the weekend. [a lot of rain; opp light rain] There was a strong wind when we were on the boat. [a lot of wind] The wind has blown all the apples off the tree. It rained in the morning, but the sky was clear by lunchtime. [no clouds] It’s been extremely cold today. [very; also extremely hot/windy] B Rain and storms For heavy rain we often use the verb pour, e.g. pour with rain. For short periods of light or heavy rain, we use the noun shower. A storm is heavy rain with strong winds. It poured with rain this afternoon. Look, it’s really pouring (with rain) now. We had a couple of heavy/light showers this morning. A period of hot weather sometimes ends with a thunderstorm. First it becomes very humid [the air feels very warm and wet], then you hear thunder and see lightning, and it’s followed by heavy rain. C Temperature* 40 degrees Celsius 10 degrees below zero boiling hot warm not very warm cold freezing [very hot] (also cool) (also chilly) [very cold] * how hot or cold it is Language help Cool can either mean slightly cold in a negative way, e.g. We’ve had a cool summer; or slightly cold in a pleasant way, e.g. The water in the pool was lovely and cool. Mild is often used in a positive way to describe weather that is not as cold as usual, e.g. It’s been a mild winter. 20 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
Exercises 7.1 Match the words on the left with the words on the right. 1 a sunny e a with rain 2 heavy b fog 3 a strong c sky 4 a clear d and lightning 5 pour e day 6 thick f rain 7 thunder g wind 7.2 Write short sentences to describe the weather conditions in each picture. 1 It’s foggy. 3 5 24 6 7.3 True or false? If a sentence is false, change it to make it true. 1 When it’s foggy, you need sunglasses. False. When it’s foggy you can’t see very well. 2 It’s nice to sit outside when it’s freezing. 3 If you’re boiling, you might enjoy a swim. 4 A shower is a type of wind. 5 If it’s chilly, you may want to put on a coat. 6 If it’s humid, the air will be very dry. 7 A mild winter means it is colder than usual. 8 If it rains, the road will be wet. 7.4 Complete the sentences. 1 We had really thick fog this morning. 2 I don’t mind wet weather if it stays quite mild. I just hate the . 3 We had a heavy this morning, but it only lasted a few minutes. 4 It was with rain when we left the house. 5 It was minus ten in New York yesterday. It is often below here in winter. It’s cold! 6 It’s getting very humid. We might have a later. 7 It was cloudy and grey this morning, but when the sun out it was quite hot. 8 What’s the today? It feels much colder than yesterday. 9 It was hot sitting in the sun, but under the beach umbrella it was nice and . 7.5 Over to you Do you have these weather conditions in your country? When do you have them? humid weather storms and thunderstorms strong winds thick fog temperatures below zero showers English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 21
8 Animals and insects A Pets and farm animals In the UK, many people keep pets [animals that live with people]. The most common are dogs and cats, but people also keep birds, e.g. parrots, that are usually in a cage. Children sometimes keep mice (sing mouse) and rabbits. Some people keep more unusual animals as pets, e.g. frogs, snakes and spiders. rabbit donkey spider frog goat cage mouse parrot snake bull Farms in the UK may have sheep, pigs, cows, horses, donkeys, chickens, goats and a bull. B Wild animals The pictures show a number of wild animals [animals that normally live in natural conditions]. If you are lucky, you may see these animals in the wild [living free], but you will probably see them in a zoo. Some of these animals, for example tigers, are now quite rare [not often seen or found]. It is important that we protect [keep safe] these endangered animals. monkey leopard elephant tiger bear camel lion trunk giraffe wings C Insects bee ant mosquito fly butterfly octopus D Sea creatures Many different creatures [living things, e.g. animals] live in the sea. whale dolphin shark 22 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
Exercises 8.1 Put the words into the correct columns. goat monkey goat fly bull bee elephant pig mosquito tiger donkey camel ant leopard butterfly farm animals wild animals insects goat 8.2 Look at the underlined letters in each pair of words. Is the pronunciation the same or different? Use the index to help you. 1 whale water different 6 goat giraffe 2 cat camel same 7 spider wild 8 camel snake 3 bear bee 9 leopard shark 4 leopard mosquito 10 monkey frog 5 lion tiger 8.3 Complete the sentences. 1 Cats and dogs are the most common pets in the UK. 2 I’ve only seen animals in zoos or on TV. 3 I don’t like keeping birds in a ; they need more space. 4 I hate ants and mosquitos. In fact, I hate all . 5 It’s hard to see tigers in the wild because they are now . 6 Some animals are disappearing, so we must them. 8.4 Start each sentence with a suitable creature from the opposite page. 1 Sharks can swim very long distances. are very clever and are similar to humans. 2 can travel through the desert for long distances without water. 3 can be 25 metres in length. 4 can eat leaves from tall trees when they are standing on the ground. 5 sometimes change their skin several times a year. 6 can pick things up with their trunk. 7 are kept as pets, usually in cages, and some can even talk! 8 8.5 Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, compare your answers with someone else. 1 Have you got any pets? What pets? 2 Have you ever seen animals in the wild? What did you see? Where? 3 How do you feel about birds in cages and wild animals in zoos? 4 Are you frightened of any creatures, e.g. mice? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 23
9 The body and movement A Parts of the body The outer part of the body is covered in skin. Too much sun is bad for your skin. cheek forehead shoulder chin lips neck breast chest thumb toe elbow waist bottom hip wrist knee ankle heel B Movements with your mouth, face and head People breathe through their nose or mouth. You breathe in and out about 12–15 times a minute. People smile when they’re happy, and sometimes smile at people to be polite. People laugh at things which are funny. People sometimes cry if they’re very unhappy, or receive bad news. People in some countries nod their head [move it up and down] to mean ‘yes’, and shake their head [move it from side to side] for ‘no’. People often yawn when they’re tired, and sometimes when they’re bored. C Common expressions shake hands comb your blow your with someone hair nose fold your wave to arms somebody 24 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
Exercises 9.1 Find ten more words for parts of the body, either across or down. THUKCAP toe ONHNHNI ECHEEKO HIPESLC EANKTEH ELBOWEI LIPSKIN 9.2 Match the words on the left with the words on the right. 1 shake e a your hair 2 wave b your nose 3 comb c to somebody 4 fold d your head 5 blow e hands 6 nod f your arms 9.3 Label the picture. 1 forehead 6 7 2 3 8 4 5 9.4 What do these actions often mean? (There may be several possible answers.) 25 1 People often smile when they’re happy. 2 They often breathe quickly after 3 They laugh 4 They may wave to somebody 5 They blow their nose 6 They shake their head 7 And nod their head 8 They cry 9 They yawn English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
10 Describing appearance A Describing beauty Your appearance is the way you look, and we sometimes use different words to talk about beauty in men and women. WOMEN can be attractive or good-looking [nice to look at], and we often use pretty [attractive] to describe a girl. We use beautiful or gorgeous for women who are very attractive. MEN can be attractive and good-looking, but also handsome. If men are very attractive, we can say they are gorgeous or very good-looking, but not usually beautiful. Liam has become quite handsome. Bella looks gorgeous in that dress. Olivia was very pretty when she was younger. They’re a very good-looking couple. Language help The opposite of beautiful is ugly, but it is not very polite to describe someone as ugly; ordinary [not special or different] is more polite. It also isn’t polite to say that someone is fat; overweight is more polite. B Size We can talk about a person’s height [how tall or short they are] and their weight [how heavy they are], e.g. I’m roughly [about; syn approximately] one metre eighty (tall), and I weigh just under eighty kilograms. If someone is not tall or short, you can describe them as medium height. If a person is very similar to most other people in height and weight, you can say they are average. A: How tall is Hannah? A: Is Marco quite big? B: Medium height, I’d say. B: No, about average. C Hair blonde fair brown dark black (or blond) curly straight wavy Common mistakes Remember that ‘hair’ is uncountable, e.g. She’s got straight hair. (NOT She’s got straight hairs.) Also: She’s got long black hair. (NOT She’s got a long black hair.) D Talking about someone’s appearance A: What does Sophia’s boyfriend look like? [Can you describe his appearance?] B: He’s blond, and quite good-looking. A: Is he tall? B: Er, tallish [quite tall], but he’s got broad shoulders [wide; opp narrow]. He looks very athletic [strong, healthy and often good at sports]. I think he does a lot of sport. A: Is he quite smart [clean, tidy and stylish]? B: Yeah, he dresses quite well [the clothes he wears are quite nice]. Language help We can use the suffix -ish at the end of some adjectives to mean ‘quite’, e.g. She’s got longish hair, and at the end of some numbers to mean ‘more or less’, e.g. He’s twentyish. 26 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate
Exercises 10.1 Complete the sentences. 10.2 1 She’s got straight hair . .2 Isabella is very good- 3 Beata’s got blonde . . 4 Her brother’s got very broad . 5 That’s a nice suit: Jack’s very today. 6 I would say he was medium . 7 Charlotte’s hair is fair but her brother’s is quite . Find six more pairs of words in the box. Why are they pairs? attractive height average good-looking weight narrow roughly tall curly approximately medium wavy broad weigh Attractive and good- looking are similar in meaning. 10.3 Complete the dialogues using words that are similar to the underlined words. 1 A: She’s good-looking. B: Yes, very attractive . 2 A: María José looked beautiful last night. B: Yes, absolutely . 3 A: Her boyfriend’s quite good-looking. B: Yes, he is rather . 4 A: Andreas looks very strong and healthy. B: Yes, I think he’s very . 5 A: That little girl is attractive, isn’t she? B: Yes, she’s very . 6 A: Ethan’s getting fat. B: Yes, he is a bit . 7 A: Did you think he was a bit ugly? B: Yes, he was quite . 8 A: Is she about 25? B: Yes, . 9 A: He’s just above average height. B: Yes, he is , isn’t he? 10.4 Over to you Answer the questions. 1 How tall are you? 2 What’s your hair like? 3 Think about one of your best friends. What does he/she look like? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and intermediate 27
11 Describing character A What are you like? Describe your character1 Choose the number that describes you. For example, in the first line 1 = very positive, 3 = not very positive or negative, 5 = very negative. 12345 I think I’m very positive2. I’m quite a negative person. I’m usually reliable3. I’m quite unreliable. I’m quite confident4. I’m quite shy5. I’m hard-working6. I’m quite lazy. I have a good sense of humour7. I’m usually quite serious8. I’m usually quite patient9. I’m quite impatient. 12345 1 what you are like as a person Common mistakes 2 believe that good things will happen 3 can be trusted to do what people expect you to do A: What’s he like? (NOT How 4 feeling sure about yourself and your abilities is he like?) 5 not confident, especially about meeting or talking to new people 6 putting a lot of effort into your work and spending a lot of time on it B: He’s very nice. (NOT He’s 7 the ability to laugh and understand when something is funny like very nice.) 8 a serious person is quiet and doesn’t laugh very much 9 able to stay calm and not get angry, especially when things take a lot of time B Opposites positive negative generous [happy to give more money or help than is usual] mean honest [an honest person tells the truth] dishonest clever, intelligent [able to learn and understand things quickly] stupid calm [relaxed and not worried or frightened] nervous, anxious Language help We use kind to describe someone who wants to help people a lot, and nice, friendly or pleasant for someone who is happy to talk to people. The opposites are unkind, unfriendly and unpleasant. C Describing a friend The first thing I would say about my best friend is that she’s very sensible1. I’ve never known Emilia to do anything silly2, and I know I can always trust3 her. She’s also very creative4; shemakesthings,andshe’savery talented5 artist. I wish6 I had her talent. 1 practical; doesn’t do stupid things 5 has a natural ability 2 not sensible, a bit stupid 6 I would like to have her 3 be sure that she is honest 4 good at thinking of new ideas talent but I haven’t got it. and using her imagination 28 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Exercises 11.1 Find five pairs of opposites and put them into the correct columns. nice mean sensible lazy calm generous unpleasant hard-working silly nervous positive negative nice 11.2 Write the opposites using the correct prefix. 1 un kind 3 pleasant 5 honest 4 patient 6 reliable 2 friendly 11.3 Describe the person in the sentences, in one word. 1 My brother is in the office from 8 am to 6 pm every day. hard-working 2 He has never bought me a drink in ten years. 3 She often promises to do things but sometimes she forgets. 4 My teacher explains things again and never gets angry. 5 Emma finds it difficult to meet people and talk to strangers. 6 Noah is practical and doesn’t do anything stupid. 7 Our teacher is nice, but he’s quiet and he doesn’t laugh a lot. 8 Danya is very relaxed and doesn’t seem to worry about things. 9 My boss is really good at using his imagination to think of new ideas. 10 Ava can play several musical instruments. 11.4 Complete the sentences. 1 My sister can’t wait for anything; she’s so impatient . 2 I get very before exams; I need to try and relax a bit more. 3 I I could paint as well as your brother; he’s so creative. 4 Adeline hasn’t done a thing since she’s been here. Honestly, she’s so . 5 I always have a laugh with my cousin – he’s got a great sense of . 6 My younger sister is able to understand new ideas so quickly; she’s very . 7 If Sarah says she’ll do it, then she’ll do it. I her completely. 8 He’d like to be relaxed and confident, but it’s just not part of his . 9 He failed his exams, but he isn’t . He just didn’t do any work. 10 Aurora helped me bake some cakes last week; she’s very . 11.5 Over to you Complete the quiz on the opposite page for yourself. From all the words on the opposite page, which one would you most like to be, and which is the one you would hate to be? If possible, compare your answers with someone else. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 29
12 Feelings A How do you feel? Language help We use emotion and feeling(s) for something which someone feels strongly about, e.g. love, hate or anger. Emotions are part of our character, e.g. Timo is a very emotional person. [shows his feelings easily] Feeling is often plural, e.g. She doesn’t like talking about her feelings. I’m very proud1 of my son’s success, but The politicians seem confused3 about what I’m a bit disappointed2 that the local paper to do, so I’m not hopeful4 that things will hasn’t shown more interest in the story. improve. 1 feeling good because you (or someone you 3 not able to think clearly or understand something know) has done something well 4 feeling positive about a future situation 2 unhappy because someone or something was not as good as you hoped. I think Harry ended the relationship We were curious5 to see what all the noise was because his girlfriend was getting about, but I felt anxious6 when I saw how angry jealous8, but now he’s quite upset9. the men were, and really scared7 when they started coming towards us. 8 unhappy and angry because someone you love seems too interested in another 5 wanting to know or learn person about something 9 unhappy because something unpleasant 6 worried has happened 7 afraid; syn frightened Language help adjective noun adjective noun proud pride disappointed disappointment jealous jealousy confused confusion curious curiosity anxious anxiety B The effect of the weather on our feelings Why do people say they feel more cheerful [happy] when the sun shines, and miserable [unhappy] when it’s raining? Why do some people suffer from SAD (seasonal affective disorder), which makes them feel depressed [unhappy, often for a long time, and without hope for the future] during long dark winters? Can the weather really affect our mood [the way we feel at a particular time], or is it just in our imaginations? C The effect of colour on our emotions COLOUR can have an effect on our mood, but how do specific colours relate to our emotions? RED can make us feel energetic1, GREEN is associated with nature and is but it can also indicate anger2. good for people suffering from stress4. PINK though, is softer and more about BLUE is relaxing and helps us to be creative5, maternal love and caring for3 people. but too much dark blue can make us depressed. 1 wanting to be busy and doing a lot of things 4 feelings of worry caused by difficult situations 2 being angry such as problems at work 3 looking after someone, especially someone young or old 5 good at thinking of new ideas or using our imagination 30 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Exercises 12.1 Cover the opposite page. Complete the tables. adjective noun adjective noun angry disappointed curiosity jealous anger emotion confused anxious pride 12.2 Find the best sentence ending on the right for each of the sentence beginnings on the left. 12.3 1 He was very anxious when c a he heard his aunt had died. b his father appeared on TV with the Prime Minister. 2 He was very jealous when c his 14-year-old daughter didn’t get home until 2 am. 3 He was very scared when d he saw the man coming towards him with a knife. 4 He was very proud when e he was ill. f his best friend went out with the girl he really liked. 5 He was very upset when 6 He was very miserable when Match the words and faces. anxious 1 scared cheerful upset confused depressed 12 3 4 56 12.4 Complete the sentences. 1 My aunt had to care for her elderly mother for years. 2 I can’t tell whether Mia is happy or not; she never shows her . 3 I’m much more in the mornings. By the afternoon I feel tired. 4 Weather has a big on the way I feel. 5 He’s been under a lot of recently because of the amount of work he has to do. 6 Oliver’s cheerful one minute and miserable the next; his changes all the time. 7 It’s been a depressing month, but I’m things will get better next month. 8 I don’t like walking home in the dark. I get very . 12.5 Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, compare your answers with someone else. 1 Does colour or the weather have an effect on your emotions? How? 2 Do you ever suffer from stress? Why? 3 Does your mood change a lot from day to day? Why? 4 Do you feel more energetic at certain times of the day? Why? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 31
13 Family and friends A Relatives* RELATIVES My father died when I was nine, and so my mother was a widow1 with four young children. She remarried five years later, so now I have a stepfather. As he is not my real father, I call him by his first name, which is Dieter. I’ve got an elder2 brother called Thomas and two younger sisters, Anya and Claudia, who are twins3. We’re a close family4. My mother is an only child5, but I’ve got two uncles on my father’s side. One is married with two children, and the other is married with three children, so altogether I have five cousins. I get on well with6 Uncle Rolf, and he always tells me I’m his favourite nephew. Of his nieces, I think he likes Anya best. Recently my brother Thomas got married. His wife’s name is Sabine, so I now have a sister-in-law7 as well. * members of your family; syn relations 4 a family who like each other and stay together a lot 1 a woman whose husband has died 5 without brothers or sisters 2 older 6 have a good relationship with 3 two children born to one mother at the same time 7 (also mother/brother/son-in-law, etc.) Uncle Rolf Thomas Father Mother Dieter Sabine Me Anya Claudia Common mistakes It’s more common and more natural to say ‘Thomas’s wife’ (NOT the wife of Thomas) or ‘Anna’s younger sister’ (NOT the younger sister of Anna). B Friends FRIENDS My best friend is Florian, an old school friend1. We got to know each other2 when we were in the same class at school. We’ve been mates3 ever since4, and our friendship is very important to both of us. He spends a lot of time with my family, and his current5 girlfriend is actually one of Thomas’s ex-girlfriends. But we all get on really well. Florian Language help We use the prefix ex- for a relationship we had in the past but do not have now, e.g. The children stay with my ex- husband at the weekend; I saw an ex- girlfriend of mine yesterday. 32 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Exercises 13.1 Look at the family tree, then complete the sentences below. Simon Cath Brian Meg (now dead) Emily (11) Tom (16) Leyla (14) Henry (10) 1 Simon died two years ago, so Cath is a widow . 2 Leyla is Cath’s . 3 Tom is Cath’s . 4 Cath is Meg’s . 5 Simon was Brian’s . 6 Tom is Leyla’s brother. 7 Emily is Leyla’s . 8 Emily is an child. 13.2 Which words are being defined? 13.3 1 Your current boyfriend is the one that you have now. means get married again. 2 are all the members of your family. 3 4 Your friend is the one you like more than any other. 5 An friend is someone you have known for a long time. 6 are two children born to one mother at the same time. 7 is an informal word for a friend. 8 is the noun when two people are friends. 9 Your is the man who is married to your mother but is not your father. Complete the text. I was still going out with James when I met my husband, Ben. We 1 got to know each other because we went to the same gym twice a week. We went out with each other for about 18 months, and we got 2 three years ago, so 3 we’ve been a couple for almost five years. We’ve continued to go to the gym ever 4 we got married, and I still quite often see James when we’re there. It’s nice if you can still 5 with an 6 -boyfriend or -girlfriend. 13.4 Over to you Answer the questions for you, then, if possible, ask a friend and write their answers. 1 Are you an only child? If not, do you have elder brothers or sisters? 2 Do you get on well with other members of your family? 3 Are you a close family? 4 Who was the last person in your family to get married? When? 5 Who’s your best friend? 6 How long have you known him/her? 7 How did you get to know each other? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 33
14 Growing up A Ages and stages in the UK Age Stage 0 birth [the moment a baby is born] Up to 12 months a baby 12 months – 3 years old a toddler 3–12 years old a child: this period is your childhood 13–18 approximately a teenager: during this period you are in your teens 18+ an adult 40+ approximately people are middle-aged [in the middle of their lives] 60 or 65 80+ retirement [when people stop work; they are retired] old age (we usually describe people as elderly) B Approximate ages Common mistakes I’m in my early twenties [21–23]. We can say, he’s 30 or he’s My parents are in their mid-fifties [54–56]. 30 years old. (NOT he has My grandmother is in her late seventies [77–79]. 30 or he’s 30 years) My grandfather is nearly/almost eighty [he’s probably 79]. Also: a 30-year-old man My English teacher’s approximately/roughly thirty. (NOT a 30-years-old man) [about 30 / more or less 30] C Past and present PAST AND PRESENT My grandmother’s name was Mary. She’s dead1 now. She died about ten years ago when I was in my teens, but I remember her well. She was brought up2 on a farm in Wales, and her parents were very strict: as a teenager, they didn’t allow3 her to listen to the radio or go to parties in the village. In the end4, she decided to leave home and get a job in Cardiff. At first5 it wasn’t easy, but she managed6 to find work, and she also met the man who became her husband: my grandfather. My mother was born four years later. She had a very different childhood. She grew up in the city, she was allowed to go to parties, and when she was in her teens, her parents let7 her stay out late8. My mum is the same with me. 1 not living; opp alive 3 give permission 6 was able (but it was 2 looked after until you 4 finally, after a lot of difficult) are an adult time or thought 7 allowed 5 at the beginning 8 not go home until late Language help Let and allow have the same meaning. Let is slightly more informal, and allow is often used in the passive. My dad let me drive his car. I was allowed to drive my dad’s car. You’re not allowed to smoke in that room. (NOT It’s not allowed to smoke in that room.) 34 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Exercises 14.1 Complete the sentences. 14.2 14.3 1 Isabella is only six months old – she’s still a baby . 2 Louis was 22 a few months ago, so he’s in his . 3 Amelia is 35, so she’s in her . . 4 Abigail will be 13 this year, so she’ll soon be a . 5 William is 53 and his wife is 47, so they’re both . 6 Joan is 80 this year, so she is quite . 7 Michael was a bus driver for 40 years but he’s now . 8 Leon is 18 this year, so legally he becomes . 9 The boys are 14 and 16, so they’re both in their 10 Holly is just over a year old and she’s starting to walk, so she’s a now. Are the sentences true or false about Mary’s life on the opposite page? If a sentence is false, change it to make it true. 1 Mary was brought up in the city. False. Mary was brought up on a farm. 2 She grew up in Wales. 3 Her parents let her do what she wanted. 4 She wasn’t allowed to listen to the radio. 5 Life was easy when she went to Cardiff. 6 She couldn’t get a job in Cardiff. Rewrite the sentences without using the underlined words and phrases. Keep a similar meaning. 1 My parents are dead now. My parents aren’t alive now . 2 It was hard but finally I did it. . 3 She’s approximately my age. It was hard but . 4 They’re almost thirty now. She’s . 5 I had to do what my parents wanted. They’re . 6 My parents let me stay up and watch TV. My parents were . 7 My mum looked after me in Scotland. I was . 8 I was able to pass my exams but it wasn’t easy. I was . 9 I didn’t go home until late. I . 10 I was allowed to wear what I liked. I . 11 I was happy as a child. My parents . 12 My grandparents don’t work any more. I had a happy . My grandparents are 14.4 Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, ask a friend and write their answers. 1 Where were you brought up? 2 What do you particularly remember about your childhood? 3 Were your parents strict? What weren’t you allowed to do when you were a child? 35 4 How late were you allowed to stay out when you were a teenager? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
15 Romance, marriage and divorce A Romance I had my first date1 when I was 16, and it was terrible. I took a girl to the cinema but she didn’t like the film and looked bored all evening; it was a bad start. Then, when I was 17, I went out with2 a girl for three months, but we broke up3 when she met a boy who was two years older than me, and had a car. My first serious relationship4 was when I went to university. I got to know5 Melanie because we were on the same course. At first we were just friends, then we started going out with each other, and after a few months we realised we were in love. We got engaged6 a couple of7 years after we left university and then … 1 a planned romantic meeting 5 became friends with 2 had a romantic relationship with 6 formally agreed to marry 3 the relationship ended 7 two, perhaps three 4 important romantic relationship (bride) groom B Marriage* bride … we got married1 the following year. We didn’t want a big ceremony2, so we had the wedding3 in the local church near Melanie’s home with just family and a few friends. afterwards we had the reception4 in a small hotel nearby, and then went on our honeymoon5 to Greece. * the time when you are married 3 the ceremony when people get married 1 became husband and wife 4 the wedding party 2 an important public event 5 a holiday just after getting married Common mistakes She got to know Darren at university. (NOT She knew Darren at university.) Now they plan to get married. (NOT They plan to get marry; or They plan to married.) She’s getting married to Darren next year. (NOT She’s getting married with Darren next year.) C Children Just over three years later Melanie got pregnant, and our first child, Cal, was born just two days after our fourth wedding anniversary1. We had a big celebration2. 1 a day that is exactly one or more years after an important event 2 a time when you do something you enjoy because it is a special day Language help adjective noun verb noun engaged engagement celebrate celebration pregnancy marry pregnant marriage D Divorce* * when a marriage officially ends Things started to go wrong1 when I got a job as manager of a 1 become a problem sportswear company. I was working six days a week and I had to do a lot 2 without other people of travelling. It was difficult for Melanie as well. She was working during 3 stop doing the week, then at weekends she was often alone / on her own2 with two 4 stop living with me young children. I felt I couldn’t give up3 my job, and in the end Melanie 5 the marriage officially decided to leave4 me. The following year we got divorced5. ended 36 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Exercises 15.1 Put the events in a logical order. 1 15.2 I went out with Gabriel. We got married. I got pregnant three months later. We got engaged. I got to know Gabriel. Our son was born just after our first anniversary. We went on our honeymoon. I met Gabriel at a party. We had a big reception. Which words are being defined? 1 The big party you have after the wedding. reception 2 A romantic meeting you plan before it happens. 3 The period of time when you are married. 4 How you describe a woman who is going to have a baby. 5 The day that is exactly one year, or a number of years, after an important event. 6 The name given to the woman and man on their wedding day. and 7 Stop doing a job or activity. something up 15.3 Complete the dialogues. 1 A: When did they get engaged ? of years. B: Last week. They plan to get married in a 2 A: Where did they meet? her at university. B: I think he got A: And now they’re married? B: Yes, the was last week. 3 A: Is it going to be a big wedding? in the village church. B: No, they’re having a small . They’re going straight back to work. A: And what about the reception? B: They’re having a reception but no 4 A: So, it’s all over. him and moved out last month. B: Yes. Lily A: Oh dear. Have they had problems for a long time? B: I think it all started to go when they moved to Woodbridge. A: And what about Oliver? Is he alone now? B: Yes, completely on . He doesn’t want any new relationships yet. A: But the marriage is definitely over? B: Yes, I’m afraid they’re getting . 15.4 Over to you Answer the questions for you, then, if possible, ask a friend and write their answers. 1 Can you remember your first date? (When, and who with?) 2 Can you remember your first serious relationship? (Who was it with? Did you break up, or are you still with the same person?) 3 Whose was the last wedding you went to? 4 What was the last big celebration (other than a wedding) that you went to? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 37
16 Daily routines A Sleep During the week I usually wake up1 about 7.30 am. If I don’t, my mum wakes me up. I get up2 a few minutes later. In the evenings I go to bed about 10.30 pm, and usually go to sleep3 straight away4. If I have a late night5 I try to have a sleep6 in the afternoon when I get home from college. 1 stop sleeping 4 immediately 2 get out of bed 5 go to bed very late; opp have an early night 3 start sleeping; syn fall asleep 6 a short period of sleeping, e.g. half an hour B Food cereal I have coffee and cereal for breakfast, then have a light lunch1, maybe a sandwich and an apple, and a snack2 in the afternoon. We have our main meal in the evening. If Mum’s late home from work, she doesn’t bother3 to cook; we just get a takeaway4 instead. One of us has to feed5 the cat as well. 1 have a small meal 4 a meal you buy in a restaurant 2 a small amount of food you eat between meals but eat at home 3 doesn’t do something because there is no 5 give food reason or because it is too much work C Bathroom routines Marcus having Rosie putting a shave on make-up I usually have a shower when I get home from college because my sister, Rosie, and my brother, Marcus, spend so much time in the bathroom in the morning. I only have time to have a wash and clean my teeth (syn brush my teeth), before Rosie comes in to put on a bit of make-up. In the winter I sometimes have a bath instead of1 a shower. I like to lie in the bath and listen to music. 1 in place of (a shower) D Housework* Fortunately1 we’ve got a cleaner2 who does a lot of the housework, and that includes doing my washing3. But I still have to make my bed and do some of my ironing, and I sometimes do the shopping with Mum. * the work of keeping a home clean and tidy 2 a person who cleans 1 happening because of good luck; syn luckily 3 washing my clothes Language help ironing When we do the shopping, we buy food at the supermarket; when we go shopping, it is a leisure activity and we perhaps buy clothes, DVDs, books, etc. E Spare time* On weekdays I usually stay in1 and watch TV in the evening. At the weekend I go out quite a lot with my friends, either to the cinema or just to a café, and I eat out2 once a week. Sometimes friends come round3 and we chat4 about clothes, music and college. * time when you are not working 3 visit me in my home 1 stay at home 4 have an informal conversation 2 eat in a restaurant; opp eat in 38 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Exercises 16.1 Find seven more expressions with have + [noun] and do + [noun] from the opposite page. 16.2 have a shower have have have 16.3 do do do do 16.4 Match the words on the left with the words on the right. 1 get up g a the dog 2 fall b my teeth 3 make c make-up 4 put on d a week 5 go e the bed 6 clean f to sleep 7 feed g early 8 once h asleep One word is missing in each sentence. What is it and where does it go? 1 Does it cost much to have a cleaner to the housework? do 2 My mother usually me up around 7:30, then I get up about 7:45. 3 If I have a in the afternoon, I usually eat fruit instead of chocolate. 4 I always go on Friday and Saturday, often to the cinema or a club. 5 Sometimes friends round to the flat and we play computer games. 6 I eat at the weekend, usually in a local Italian or French restaurant. 7 I don’t with a full meal at lunchtime; I usually just have a light lunch, like a salad. 8 I often have for breakfast – usually cornflakes or something like that. 9 I don’t like doing housework; I have a husband who does most of it. 10 When I get emails, I try to reply to them straight. Complete the dialogue with a word or phrasal verb from the opposite page in each gap. A: Don’t 1 bother to cook dinner tonight. B: Why not? A: We could go out 2 of eating here. B: Yeah. Where? A: Well, I’d like to try that new Korean restaurant. B: That’s miles away. No, I think I’d rather 3 and have an 4 night. A: But it’s Friday. B: Yes, I know, but I’m tired. Why don’t we ask Ryan and Charlotte to 5 ? You don’t have to cook, we can order a 6 . And we can have a nice 7 round the dining table; much better than a noisy restaurant. 16.5 Over to you Find three facts from the opposite page that are similar in your routine, and three that are different. Complete the table. similar different 1 2 3 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 39
17 The place where you live A Location* We live on the outskirts of town1, and it’s a very nice location. We used to live in the centre, but we moved2 to our present flat when we had children because there’s more space3 for them to play and it has nice views4. * the place and position of something 3 an area that is empty or not used 1 on the edge of town 4 the things you can see from a place 2 changed the place where we live B Our flat second floor top floor This is where we live. We rent1 a balcony flat on the second floor. There’s a family in the flat downstairs2, and a young French couple upstairs, on the top floor. It’s a modern block of flats3, and it’s quite good, although the lift4 is small, and there’s no air conditioning5. 1 pay money every week/month to use it because it isn’t ours 2 on a lower level of a building 3 a building with a number of flats in it 4 the machine that takes people up or down a floor 5 a system that keeps the air cool Language help front first floor door Flat is more common in British steps English; apartment is used in ground floor American English but is becoming more common in British English. Apartments are usually in large buildings; flats can be in a large building or part of a larger house. C A house in the country My parents own1 a cottage2. It’s a charming3 house and has lots of character4, but like many old buildings, it’s quite dark (opp light), quite difficult to heat5, and it doesn’t have central heating6. 1 they bought it 2 a small house, that is old and attractive, and usually found in the country 3 pleasant and attractive 4 it is interesting and unusual 5 make warm or hot 6 a system that heats a whole house cottage 40 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Exercises 17.1 Are the sentences about the people on the opposite page true or false? If the sentence is false, change it to make it true. 17.2 17.3 1 They live in a house. False. They live in a flat. 2 They used to live on the outskirts of town. 3 They own their flat. 4 They’ve got nice views from their flat. 5 They live on the first floor. 6 There’s a lift in the building. 7 A French couple live downstairs. 8 They own a cottage. 9 The cottage has lots of character. 10 The cottage is quite cold. Are these generally positive or negative features of a home? views positive air conditioning character charming no central heating dark Label the pictures. 1 a block of flats 2 3 4 5 6 17.4 Complete the sentences. 1 Our flat doesn’t have air conditioning . 2 I live the second floor, and my cousin lives , on the first floor. 3 My old flat was very small, but this one has much more . 4 The flat’s in a great : it’s near the centre of town but opposite a park and very quiet. 5 We live on the of town, but it’s only a twenty-minute walk to the centre. 6 The flat is on the third floor, but we can sit outside on the . 7 It’s a very big house, so it costs a lot of money to in the winter. 8 I’m on the second . I usually use the stairs, but take the if I’m feeling lazy. 9 I live in Paris. I used to live in Marseilles, but I to Paris when I left university. 10 I love my apartment. It has big windows, so it’s nice and inside. 17.5 Over to you Answer the questions about your home. 5 How long have you lived there? 1 Do you live in a house or flat? 2 If you live in a flat, what floor is it on? 6 Do you have these things: 3 Do you own your home or rent it? 4 Are you in the centre, or on the outskirts of air conditioning? central heating? a balcony? your town? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 41
18 Around the home A Different homes When we first got married, we lived in a one-bedroom flat with a small kitchen, a living room and a bathroom. When our first child was born, she had to share our bedroom. [use something at the same time as someone else] Now we live in a four-bedroom house. Our bedroom has an en-suite bathroom [a bathroom connected to the bedroom], our two teenage children have their own rooms [they do not have to share], we have a spare room for guests, and another bathroom. Downstairs, there’s a living room, a dining room and a study Language help [a room where people can work]. We’ve also got a lovely big kitchen with a fridge-freezer, a cooker with two ovens and a We usually talk about a sink in dishwasher [a machine for washing dishes]. Next to it, there’s a the kitchen, but a (wash)basin in the bathroom. small utility room where we keep the washing machine. tiles freezer tap kettle microwave B Choices* cupboards sink oven cooker fridge * when you decide between two or more possibilities WHAT DO YOU PREFER? FOR THE HOME LIGHTING GIFTS SALE 2 4 1 3 Some people like big some people like firm Do you like a wooden or a carpet? soft sofas1 with lots (opp soft) armchairs. floor3 with a rug4, of cushions2, 7 Curtains, or blinds? A duvet, 5 6 or a sheet5 and a blanket6? One pillow7, or two? 42 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Exercises 18.1 You are in the kitchen. Where would you put these things? 18.2 18.3 1 milk? in the fridge 18.4 2 food that you want to heat very quickly? 3 meat that you are going to cook? 4 dirty clothes? 5 dirty saucepans? 6 clean cups and saucers 7 frozen food that you want to keep for several weeks? What are these things, and which room(s) do you usually find them in? 1 girdef fridge, in the kitchen 2 snik 3 nacitusr 4 shiconus 5 ktelet 6 bashniswa 7 cparte 8 lipowl 9 shiwang chameni 10 kocero 11 chmariar 12 leits Complete the sentences. 1 I’m happy with curtains or blinds ; I really don’t mind. 2 We used to have a floor, but it was a bit noisy so we put down a carpet. 3 When I got my new bedroom, my mum gave me a of curtains or blinds. 4 My mum works at home, so she spends all day in the on the computer. 5 As a child I had to a room with my sister, but now I’ve got my bedroom. 6 We often have guests to stay, but fortunately we’ve got a room. 7 ‘Dad, there’s no water coming out of the in the kitchen sink.’ 8 Some people like a sheet and , but I prefer a . 9 There’s a family bathroom, but I’ve got my own shower room next to the bedroom. 10 Our kitchen is small but we have a room for the washing machine. Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, compare your answers with someone else. 1 What have you got on your kitchen floor? 2 What have you got on the bathroom floor? 3 What have you got on the floor in the living room? 4 Have you got curtains or blinds in your bedroom? 5 Have you got a duvet or sheets and blankets on your bed? 18.5 Over to you Look at section B on the opposite page again. Which do you prefer, and why? Compare your answers with someone else if possible. English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 43
19 Money A Notes and coins In the UK the currency [type of money used] is sterling [pounds]; in America it is the dollar; in much of Europe it’s the euro. Notes Coins (in the UK) e.g. ten pounds, twenty euros, e.g. fifty pence (usually spoken as fifty p), a ten-pound note, a twenty-euro note a pound, a fifty-pence piece, but a one-pound coin B Managing your money I’ve had a bank account for a few years now, and I make sure my account is always in credit1. I go to the cashpoint once a week, so I always have some cash2 with me, and I check3 my account online once a week to see how much money I’ve got. 1 having money in the account 2 money in the form of notes and coins 3 look at the details of it cashpoint C Money problems When I went to university, I had to get a student loan1 to pay my fees2. That meant I had to be careful and make sure I didn’t waste money3, but by the time I finished my degree I owed4 a lot. One good thing is that I don’t have to pay it back until I get a job and I’m earning5 a reasonable amount6 of money. At the moment I’m saving up7 for a new laptop; the one I have is very slow and keeps going wrong. I’d love to have a car as well, but I can’t afford8 it. 1 money you borrow to pay for your studies 5 receiving money for the work I do 2 money you pay to use something, 6 quite a lot; $ 1 million is a large amount 7 keeping money to buy something in the future or for a service, e.g. a lawyer’s fee 8 don’t have enough money to buy one 3 use it badly 4 had to pay back a lot of money to the bank D Accommodation* This year I’m renting a flat with three friends of mine. We had to pay one month’s rent as a deposit1, but it’s a nice place, quite good value for money2, and the landlord isn’t charging3 us to use his garage. * places where you live or stay 1 money you pay for something you are going to use, which is then returned to you when you have finished using it 2 good for the amount of money you pay 3 asking someone to pay an amount of money Language help We use rent when we pay to use something for a long period of time, e.g. rent a flat. The noun rent is the amount you pay, e.g. The rent is £400 per month. We use hire when we pay to use something for a short period of time, e.g. I hired a bike for the day. Both verbs are used with cars, e.g. We rented/hired a car when we were on holiday. 44 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Exercises 19.1 Answer the questions as quickly as possible. Yes 19.2 1 Is sterling a currency? 19.3 2 Is a five-pound note worth less than a fifty-pence piece? 19.4 3 If you rent something, do you own it? 19.5 4 If you waste money, do you use it well? 5 Can you get money from a cashpoint? 6 If you are in credit, do you have money in your account? 7 Do you pay back a bank loan? 8 Is the currency in the United States of America called the euro? 9 Do you normally get back a deposit? 10 If you ‘can afford’ something, do you have enough money for it? Which words are being defined? 1 A flat, usually round piece of metal used as money. coin 2 Money you borrow from a bank. 3 Money you pay to someone for a professional service, e.g. a school. 4 Money in the form of notes or coins. 5 Money you pay to live in a building that you don’t own. 6 A machine where you can get money. 7 The type of money used in a country. Rewrite the sentences without using the underlined words and phrases. Keep the same meaning. 1 He’s getting £300 a week in his job. He’s earning £300 a week in his job. 2 She used the money badly. 3 I don’t have enough money to go. She 4 We could rent a car. I 5 He asked us to pay £25. We could 6 I’ve got to pay back a lot of money. He 7 I always look at my account carefully. I I always Complete the text. I’m nearly 20 now, and I’ve been 1 saving up for a car for the last two years. I’ve been putting money into my bank 2 , and I try to put in exactly the same 3 every month: £75 from money that I 4 doing a job two evenings a week, and £50 that my parents are lending me each month. That means I now 5 them £1200, but they said I don’t have to 6 them until I’ve got a full-time job. At the moment I’m still living at home, so I don’t have to pay for my 7 , although I will start paying my parents a bit of rent when I finish college and get a job. Over to you Answer the questions. 1 Have you got a bank account? If so, how long have you had it? 2 How often do you check your account? 3 How often do you use a cashpoint? 4 Have you ever had a bank loan? What did you have the loan for? 5 Are you saving up for anything at the moment? 6 Do you rent the place where you live? If so, did you have to pay a deposit? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 45
20 Health A Common problems What you should do B: That sounds like flu. You should see a doctor. What’s the matter? B: Put a bandage4 round it. A: I’ve got a sore throat1 and a temperature.2 B: Go to the chemist and get some cough A: I’ve cut my arm; it’s bleeding.3 A: I’ve got a terrible cough.5 medicine [something you take to treat an illness]. B: Take some tablets6 for the pain. (also pills) A: I’ve got a headache. 3 B: Go to the bathroom quickly! A: I feel sick.7 57 1 24 6 B Describing pain We can use different words to describe pain. An ache describes pain that is not always strong, but often continues. It is used with certain parts of the body. I’ve got a headache. Aria’s got stomach ache. My dad suffers from [often has the pain of] backache. For other parts of the body we often use pain. I’ve got a pain in my shoulder/foot. Ache can also be a verb to describe pain that continues for some time. By the end of the day my feet were aching. For stronger or more sudden pain, we usually use the verb hurt. My throat hurts when I speak. I hit my leg on the table and it really hurts / it’s very painful. C Serious illnesses For serious [bad] illnesses, you will probably go into hospital. A person who stays in hospital is called a patient. Many patients need an operation [when special doctors, called surgeons, cut into the body for medical reasons; also called surgery]. Lung cancer can be caused by smoking. Heart attacks can happen very suddenly. Hepatitis is a disease affecting the liver. Language help lungs heart liver Disease is used to talk about more serious medical problems, often affecting certain parts of the body, e.g. heart disease. Illness is used to talk about serious and minor medical problems and those affecting the mind, e.g. mental illness. Disease is not used about a period of illness, e.g. He died after a long illness. (NOT He died after a long disease.) 46 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
Exercises 20.1 Look at the underlined letters in each pair of words. Is the pronunciation the same or 20.2 different? Use the index to help you. 20.3 1 ache pain same 5 liver disease 20.4 2 cold stomach -d.ifferent 6 stomach operation 7 chemist ache 3 cough through 8 patient bandage 4 flu cut Complete the sentences with a or nothing (–). 1 She’s got - hepatitis. 6 I’ve got backache. 7 Zarita’s got flu. 2 I’ve got a cough. 8 My uncle had heart attack. 9 She’s got cancer. 3 I’m getting sore throat. 10 I’ve got pain in my foot. 4 Ben’s got headache. 5 Luis’s got temperature. Complete the dialogues. 1 A: Does your finger hurt? . B: Yes, it’s very painful 2 A: What’s wrong with Dimitrios? B: He feels . I think it’s something he ate. 3 A: Did you hit your foot? B: Yes, and it really . 4 A: My hand’s bleeding quite badly. B: Well, put a round it. 5 A: Your finger’s . B: I know. I cut it using that knife. 6 A: Does Tanya still from bad headaches? B: Yes, she gets them all the time. 7 A: What’s the matter? B: My back from sitting at that computer all day. 8 A: I understand Lena has had quite a illness. B: Yeah. She was in hospital for over a week. Find five more pairs of words. Why are they pairs? lung heart surgeon tablets/pills attack liver operation cancer hepatitis sore medicine throat lung and cancer - because you can get lung cancer. 20.5 Over to you Answer the questions. If possible, compare your answers with someone else. 47 1 What do you usually do if you get a headache? 2 How often do you get a cough or a sore throat? 3 Have you ever been a patient in hospital? If so, what was it like? 4 Have you ever had surgery? 5 Are there some medicines you always keep in your home? What are they? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate
21 Clothes A Smart, stylish and casual I think the woman looks stylish [wearing nice clothes and looking attractive; also well- dressed]. The man is smartly dressed [clean and tidy and suitable for formal situations]. The boy’s clothes are more casual [comfortable and suitable for informal situations]. earring cap top necklace T-shirt jumper/sweater bracelet tie rucksack zip collar ring sleeve scarf jacket boots skirt jeans tights button suit pocket trainers B Verbs and phrases used with clothes I have to wear a suit and tie to work, but I usually take off my tie before As soon as I get up, I have a lunchtime. [remove it; opp put shower and get dressed [put something on] on my clothes]. I don’t eat breakfast. I think I look good in black because dark colours suit me. I prefer jackets with a zip; it’s easier to undo a zip [open a zip, [I look good in dark colours; opp buttons, etc.] and it’s also much bright colours] quicker to do it up. When I get home from Common mistakes work, I usually change I like clothes. (NOT I like cloth or cloths.) into a pair of jeans. I like your new trousers. (NOT I like your new trouser.) 48 English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and iIntermediate
Exercises 21.1 Put the words into the correct columns. boots earrings button top ring jumper bracelet scarf necklace zip pocket cap sleeve tights collar items of clothing jewellery parts of clothing boots 21.2 Find five more things that are different in the pictures. 1 The first woman is wearing a ring; the second isn’t. 2 3 4 5 6 21.3 Complete the sentences. 1 Why don’t you take off your coat? 2 Madison looks really nice purple. 3 He was very smartly- this morning. He had his best suit on. 4 It took me ages to put these boots. 5 You should wear bright colours more often; they you. 6 Julia couldn’t do the zip on her jacket. 7 I changed a pair of jeans as soon as I got home. 8 I took my tie off and the top button of my shirt. 9 My brother takes his books to school in a . He says it’s easier to carry them on his back. 10 I had a quick shower, got , then joined the others for breakfast. 21.4 Over to you Women, answer these questions. Men, answer these questions. 1 What jewellery do you usually wear? How often do you wear a suit? 2 Which colours suit you best? How often do you wear a tie? 3 Do you prefer smart or casual clothes? Do you usually do up the top button of your shirt? 4 Do you generally look quite stylish? Do you often change into jeans after school or work? 5 Do you often wear a hat or a cap? Do you often wear a hat or a cap? 6 Do you often wear T-shirts or trainers? Do you often wear T-shirts or trainers? English Vocabulary in Use Pre-intermediate and Intermediate 49