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  1. Dog Behaviors And What They Mean
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Dan’s Big Awesome Acoustic Songbook. Here’s What They Want. 14, 2021 3:13 pm ET / Original Oct. 14, 2021 4:10 am ET Order Reprints Print Article.

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Vitamins are organic compounds that people need in small quantities. Most vitamins need to come from food because the body either does not produce them or produces very little.

Each organism has different vitamin requirements. For example, humans need to get vitamin C from their diets — while dogs can produce all the vitamin C that they need.

For humans, vitamin D is not available in large enough quantities in food. The human body synthesizes the vitamin when exposed to sunlight, and this is the best source of vitamin D.

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Different vitamins play different roles in the body, and a person requires a different amount of each vitamin to stay healthy.

This article explains what vitamins are, what they do, and which foods are good sources. Follow the links in blue below for more information about each vitamin.

Vitamins are organic substances present in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs. Having too little of any particular vitamin may increase the risk of developing certain health issues.

A vitamin is an organic compound, which means that it contains carbon. It is also an essential nutrient that the body may need to get from food.

There are currently 13 recognized vitamins.

Vitamins are either soluble, or dissolvable, in fat or water. We describe both types below:

Fat-soluble vitamins


Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble. The body stores fat-soluble vitamins in fatty tissue and the liver, and reserves of these vitamins can stay in the body for days and sometimes months.

Dietary fats help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins through the intestinal tract.

Water-soluble vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins do not stay in the body for long and cannot be stored. They leave the body via the urine. Because of this, people need a more regular supply of water-soluble vitamins than fat-soluble ones.

Vitamin C and all the B vitamins are water-soluble.

Below, learn about each currently recognized vitamin:

Vitamin A

Chemical names: retinol, retinal, and “the four carotenoids,” including beta carotene.

  • It is fat-soluble.
  • Function: It is essential for eye health.
  • Deficiency: This may cause night blindness and keratomalacia, which causes the clear front layer of the eye to grow dry and cloudy.
  • Good sources: These include liver, cod liver oil, carrots, broccoli, sweet potatoes, butter, kale, spinach, pumpkins, collard greens, some cheeses, eggs, apricots, cantaloupe melon, and milk.
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Vitamin B1

Chemical name: thiamine.

  • It is water-soluble.
  • Function: It is essential for producing various enzymes that help break down blood sugar.
  • Deficiency: This may cause beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
  • Good sources: These include yeast, pork, cereal grains, sunflower seeds, brown rice, whole grain rye, asparagus, kale, cauliflower, potatoes, oranges, liver, and eggs.

Vitamin B2

Chemical name: riboflavin.

  • It is water-soluble.
  • Function: It is essential for the growth and development of body cells and helps metabolize food.
  • Deficiency: Symptoms include inflammation of the lips and fissures in the mouth.
  • Good sources: These include asparagus, bananas, persimmons, okra, chard, cottage cheese, milk, yogurt, meat, eggs, fish, and green beans.

Vitamin B3

Chemical names: niacin, niacinamide.

  • It is water-soluble.
  • Function: The body needs niacin for the cells to grow and work correctly.
  • Deficiency: Low levels result in a health issue called pellagra, which causes diarrhea, skin changes, and intestinal upset.
  • Good sources: Examples include chicken, beef, tuna, salmon, milk, eggs, tomatoes, leafy vegetables, broccoli, carrots, nuts and seeds, tofu, and lentils.

Vitamin B5

Chemical name: pantothenic acid.

  • It is water-soluble.
  • Function: It is necessary for producing energy and hormones.
  • Deficiency: Symptoms include paresthesia, or “pins and needles.”
  • Good sources: These include meats, whole grains, broccoli, avocados, and yogurt.

Vitamin B6

Chemical names: pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal.

What They'll Never Tell You About The Music Business PDF Free Download
  • It is water-soluble.
  • Function: It is vital for the formation of red blood cells.
  • Deficiency: Low levels may lead to anemia and peripheral neuropathy.
  • Good sources: These include chickpeas, beef liver, bananas, squash, and nuts.

Vitamin B7

Chemical name: biotin.

  • It is water-soluble.
  • Function: It enables the body to metabolize proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. It also contributes to keratin, a structural protein in the skin, hair, and nails.
  • Deficiency: Low levels may cause dermatitis or inflammation of the intestines.
  • Good sources: These include egg yolk, liver, broccoli, spinach, and cheese.

Vitamin B9

Chemical names: folic acid, folinic acid.

  • It is water-soluble.
  • Functions: It is essential for making DNA and RNA.
  • Deficiency: During pregnancy, this can affect the fetus’s nervous system. Doctors recommend folic acid supplements before and during pregnancy.
  • Good sources: These include leafy vegetables, peas, legumes, liver, some fortified grain products, and sunflower seeds. Also, several fruits have moderate amounts.

Vitamin B12

Chemical names: cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin.

  • It is water-soluble.
  • Function: It is essential for a healthy nervous system.
  • Deficiency: Low levels may lead to neurological problems and some types of anemia.
  • Good sources: Examples include fish, shellfish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk and other dairy products, fortified cereals, fortified soy products, and fortified nutritional yeast.

Doctors may recommend that people with vegan diets take B12 supplements.

Vitamin C

Chemical name: ascorbic acid.

  • It is water-soluble.
  • Function: It contributes to collagen production, wound healing, and bone formation. It also strengthens blood vessels, supports the immune system, helps the body absorb iron, and acts as an antioxidant.
  • Deficiency: This may result in scurvy, which causes bleeding gums, a loss of teeth, and poor tissue growth and wound healing.
  • Good sources: These include fruit and vegetables, but cooking destroys vitamin C.

Vitamin D

Chemical names: ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol.

  • It is fat-soluble.
  • Function: It is necessary for the healthy mineralization of bone.
  • Deficiency: This may cause rickets and osteomalacia, or softening of the bones.
  • Good sources: Exposure to UVB rays from the sun or other sources causes the body to produce vitamin D. Fatty fish, eggs, beef liver, and mushrooms also contain the vitamin.

Vitamin E

Chemical names: tocopherol, tocotrienol.

  • It is fat-soluble.
  • Function: Its antioxidant activity helps prevent oxidative stress, an issue that increases the risk of widespread inflammation and various diseases.
  • Deficiency: This is rare, but it may cause hemolytic anemia in newborns. This condition destroys blood cells.
  • Good sources: These include wheat germ, kiwis, almonds, eggs, nuts, leafy greens, and vegetable oils.

Vitamin K

Chemical names: phylloquinone, menaquinone.

  • It is fat-soluble.
  • Function: It is necessary for blood clotting.
  • Deficiency: Low levels may cause an unusual susceptibility to bleeding, or bleeding diathesis.
  • Good sources: These include natto, leafy greens, pumpkins, figs, and parsley.

Many people in the United States take multivitamins and other supplements, though these may not be necessary or helpful, according to research.

A balanced, varied diet that contains plenty of fruits and vegetables should be the primary source of vitamins. The Department of Health and Human Services provide up-to-date guidelines detailing the best ways to get enough nutrients from the diet.

Fortified foods and supplements may be appropriate in some cases, however, such as during pregnancy, for people with restricted diets, and for people with specific health issues.

Anyone taking supplements should be careful not to exceed the maximum dose, as research shows that taking too much of any vitamin can lead to health problems.

Also, some medications can interact with vitamin supplements. Overall, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider before trying any supplement.

Various supplements are available for purchase online.

Vitamins are essential nutrients that mainly come from foods. Each performs various roles in the body, and deficiencies of different vitamins can harm health in different ways.

Aim to get vitamins from a balanced, varied diet that contains plenty of fruits and vegetables. If a person is pregnant or has a health issue or a restricted diet, a doctor or nutritionist may recommend supplements.

Dog Behaviors And What They Mean

A web browser takes you anywhere on the internet, letting you see text, images and video from anywhere in the world.

The web is a vast and powerful tool. Over the course of a few decades, the internet has changed the way we work, the way we play and the way we interact with one another. Depending on how it’s used, it bridges nations, drives commerce, nurtures relationships, drives the innovation engine of the future and is responsible for more memes than we know what to do with.

It’s important that everyone has access to the web, but it’s also vital that we all understand the tools we use to access it. We use web browsers like Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge and Apple Safari every day, but do we understand what they are and how they work? In a short period of time we’ve gone from being amazed by the ability to send an email to someone around the world, to a change in how we think of information. It’s not a question of how much you know anymore, but simply a question of what browser or app can get you to that information fastest.

In a short period of time, we’ve gone from being amazed by the ability to send an email to someone around the world, to a change in how we think about information.

How does a web browser work?

A web browser takes you anywhere on the internet. It retrieves information from other parts of the web and displays it on your desktop or mobile device. The information is transferred using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which defines how text, images and video are transmitted on the web. This information needs to be shared and displayed in a consistent format so that people using any browser, anywhere in the world can see the information.

Sadly, not all browser makers choose to interpret the format in the same way. For users, this means that a website can look and function differently. Creating consistency between browsers, so that any user can enjoy the internet, regardless of the browser they choose, is called web standards.

Creatine Levels And What They Mean

When the web browser fetches data from an internet connected server, it uses a piece of software called a rendering engine to translate that data into text and images. This data is written in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and web browsers read this code to create what we see, hear and experience on the internet.

Hyperlinks allow users to follow a path to other pages or sites on the web. Every webpage, image and video has its own unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which is also known as a web address. When a browser visits a server for data, the web address tells the browser where to look for each item that is described in the html, which then tells the browser where it goes on the web page.

Cookies (not the yummy kind)

Websites save information about you in files called cookies. They are saved on your computer for the next time you visit that site. Upon your return, the website code will read that file to see that it’s you. For example, when you go to a website, the page remembers your username and password – that’s made possible by a cookie.

There are also cookies that remember more detailed information about you. Perhaps your interests, your web browsing patterns, etc. This means that a site can provide you more targeted content – often in the form of ads. There are types of cookies, called third-party cookies, that come from sites you’re not even visiting at the time and can track you from site to site to gather information about you, which is sometimes sold to other companies. Sometimes you can block these kinds of cookies, though not all browsers allow you to.

When you go to a website and the page remembers your username and password – that’s made possible by a cookie.

Understanding privacy

What They Had Movie

Nearly all major browsers have a private browsing setting. These exist to hide the browsing history from other users on the same computer. Many people think that private browsing or incognito mode will hide both their identity and browsing history from internet service providers, governments and advertisers. They don’t. These settings just clear the history on your system, which is helpful if you’re dealing with sensitive personal information on a shared or public computer. Firefox goes beyond that.

Firefox helps you be more private online by letting you block trackers from following you around the web.

Making your web browser work for you

Most major web browsers let users modify their experience through extensions or add-ons. Extensions are bits of software that you can add to your browser to customize it or add functionality. Extensions can do all kinds of fun and practical things like enabling new features, foreign language dictionaries, or visual appearances and themes.

All browser makers develop their products to display images and video as quickly and smoothly as possible, making it easy for you to make the most of the web. They all work hard to make sure users have a browser that is fast, powerful and easy to use. Where they differ is why. It’s important to choose the right browser for you. Mozilla builds Firefox to ensure that users have control over their online lives and to ensure that the internet is a global, public resource, accessible to all.